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Accelerated Arctic land warming and permafrost degradation during rapid sea ice loss

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature275999
Source
Geophysical Research Letters. 2008 Jun;35(11):1-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2008
Author
Lawrence, DM
Slater, AG
Tomas, RA
Holland, MM
Deser, C
Source
Geophysical Research Letters. 2008 Jun;35(11):1-6
Date
Jun-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Albedo
Arctic sea ice
Arctic warming
Land temperature
Permafrost
Abstract
Coupled climate models and recent observational evidence suggest that Arctic sea ice may undergo abrupt periods of loss during the next fifty years. Here, we evaluate how rapid sea ice loss affects terrestrial Arctic climate and ground thermal state in the Community Climate System Model. We find that simulated western Arctic land warming trends during rapid sea ice loss are 3.5 times greater than secular 21st century climate-change trends. The accelerated warming signal penetrates up to 1500 km inland and is apparent throughout most of the year, peaking in autumn. Idealized experiments using the Community Land Model, with improved permafrost dynamics, indicate that an accelerated warming period substantially increases ground heat accumulation. Enhanced heat accumulation leads to rapid degradation of warm permafrost and may increase the vulnerability of colder permafrost to degradation under continued warming. Taken together, these results imply a link between rapid sea ice loss and permafrost health.
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Achieving the NOAA Arctic Action Plan: The Missing Permafrost Element.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297129
Source
Science and Technology Infusion Climate Bulletin, NOAA’s National Weather Service. 39th NOAA Annual Climate Diagnostics and Prediction Workshop, St. Louis, MO, 20-23 October 2014. p.70-73.
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Date
2014
, George Washington University, Washington, DC; Email: rachaelj@gwu.edu Achieving the NOAA Arctic Action Plan: The Missing Permafrost Element Rachael Jonassen1, Elchin Jafarov2, Kevin Schaefer2, Fiona Horsfall3, and Marina Timofeyeva3 1Department of Engineering Management and Systems
  1 document  
Author
Jonassen, Rachael
Jafarov, Elchin
Schaefer, Kevin
Horsfall, Fiona
Timofeyeva, Marina
Source
Science and Technology Infusion Climate Bulletin, NOAA’s National Weather Service. 39th NOAA Annual Climate Diagnostics and Prediction Workshop, St. Louis, MO, 20-23 October 2014. p.70-73.
Date
2014
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
File Size
177255
Keywords
Alaska
Permafrost
Forecasts
Documents
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Publication Type
Interactive/Multimedia
  1 website  
Author Affiliation
Alaska Sea Grant
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Interactive/Multimedia
Digital File Format
Web site (.html, .htm)
Keywords
One Health
Northern communities
Vulnerability & Adaptation
Animals
Climate change
Permafrost
Introduced species
Ice
Ecosystem
Floods
Freezing
Abstract
Seventeen-minute video produced by Alaska Sea Grant and NOAA Alaska Region.
Online Resources
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Anaerobic methanotrophic communities thrive in deep submarine permafrost.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296101
Source
Sci Rep. 2018 01 22; 8(1):1291
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
01-22-2018
Author
Matthias Winkel
Julia Mitzscherling
Pier P Overduin
Fabian Horn
Maria Winterfeld
Ruud Rijkers
Mikhail N Grigoriev
Christian Knoblauch
Kai Mangelsdorf
Dirk Wagner
Susanne Liebner
Author Affiliation
GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Helmholtz Centre Potsdam, Section 5.3 Geomicrobiology, 14473, Potsdam, Germany. mwinkel@gfz-potsdam.de.
Source
Sci Rep. 2018 01 22; 8(1):1291
Date
01-22-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Anaerobiosis - physiology
Archaea - classification - genetics - isolation & purification - metabolism
Arctic Regions
Biodiversity
Carbon - metabolism
DNA, Archaeal - genetics
Geologic Sediments - microbiology
Methane - metabolism
Nitrogen - metabolism
Oceans and Seas
Oxidation-Reduction
Permafrost - microbiology
Phylogeny
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S - genetics
Russia
Abstract
Thawing submarine permafrost is a source of methane to the subsurface biosphere. Methane oxidation in submarine permafrost sediments has been proposed, but the responsible microorganisms remain uncharacterized. We analyzed archaeal communities and identified distinct anaerobic methanotrophic assemblages of marine and terrestrial origin (ANME-2a/b, ANME-2d) both in frozen and completely thawed submarine permafrost sediments. Besides archaea potentially involved in anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) we found a large diversity of archaea mainly belonging to Bathyarchaeota, Thaumarchaeota, and Euryarchaeota. Methane concentrations and d13C-methane signatures distinguish horizons of potential AOM coupled either to sulfate reduction in a sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) or to the reduction of other electron acceptors, such as iron, manganese or nitrate. Analysis of functional marker genes (mcrA) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) corroborate potential activity of AOM communities in submarine permafrost sediments at low temperatures. Modeled potential AOM consumes 72-100% of submarine permafrost methane and up to 1.2?Tg of carbon per year for the total expected area of submarine permafrost. This is comparable with AOM habitats such as cold seeps. We thus propose that AOM is active where submarine permafrost thaws, which should be included in global methane budgets.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29358665 View in PubMed
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Analysis of Seasonal Active Layer Dynamics & Fate, Transport & Transformation of Three Chemical Clusters in Permafrost-Affected Soils.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297121
Source
RPIC, Regional Workshop on Federal Contaminated Sites, Edmonton, Alberta. 37 slides.
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Date
June 3, 2015
Esquimalt Harbour Public Meeting October 29, 2009 Contaminated Sites Division “Analysis of Seasonal Active Layer Dynamics & Fate, Transport & Transformation of Three Chemical Clusters in Permafrost-Affected Soils” RPIC, Regional Workshop on Federal Contaminated Sites Edmonton
  1 document  
Author
Mohapatra, Asish
Author Affiliation
Contaminated Sites, Health Canada, Prairie Region - Alberta
Source
RPIC, Regional Workshop on Federal Contaminated Sites, Edmonton, Alberta. 37 slides.
Date
June 3, 2015
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
File Size
1359038
Keywords
Permafrost
Soils
Hydrologic dynamics
Thermal dynamics
Freezing
Groundwater
Chemical transport
Climate change
Documents
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Arctic Ocean synthesis: analysis of climate change impacts in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas with strategies for future research.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297070
Source
184 p.
Publication Type
Report
Date
December 2008
the total ice volume, and the extent of the sea ice (Fig. 1; Walsh 2008). Other changes in the physical environment in the Arctic shelf regions include increased river discharge, rising sea-level, thawing of permafrost and coastal erosion. Changes in albedo (light reflectance) associated with
  1 document  
Author
Hopcroft, Russ
Bluhm, Bodil
Gradinger, Rolf
Author Affiliation
Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Alaska, Fairbanks
Source
184 p.
Date
December 2008
Language
English
Geographic Location
Russia
U.S.
Publication Type
Report
File Size
3882185
Keywords
Chukchi Sea
Beaufort Sea
Sea ice
Coastal erosion
Permafrost
Sea level
Marine wildlife
Documents
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Assessment of the potential health impacts of climate change in Alaska

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature287905
Source
Bulletin. State of Alaska Epidemiology. Recommendations and Reports. 2018 Jan 8; 20(1)
Publication Type
Article
Date
2018
...................................................................................................................7 2.3.6 Permafrost ..............................................................................................................8 2.3.7 Sea Levels ..............................................................................................................8 2.4 Climate Change Predictions for
  1 document  
Author
Yoder, Sarah
Author Affiliation
Alaska Section of Epidemiology
Source
Bulletin. State of Alaska Epidemiology. Recommendations and Reports. 2018 Jan 8; 20(1)
Date
2018
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Alaska
Climate change
Sea levels
Permafrost
Glaciers
Weather patterns
Sea ice
Temperature
Subsistence
Infectious disease
Sanitation
Health services
Abstract
Background: Over the past century, the air and water temperatures in Alaska have warmed considerably faster than in the rest of the United States. Because Alaska is the only Arctic state in the Nation, Alaskans are likely to face some climate change challenges that will be different than those encountered in other states. For example, permafrost currently underlies 80% of Alaska and provides a stable foundation for the physical infrastructure of many Alaska communities. As has already been seen in numerous villages, the groundcover that overlies permafrost is vulnerable to sinking or caving if the permafrost thaws, resulting in costly damage to physical infrastructure. The reliance on subsistence resources is another contrast to many other states. Many Alaskans depend upon subsistence harvests of fish and wildlife resources for food and to support their way of life. Some Alaskans report that the changing environment has already impacted their traditional practices. Many past efforts to characterize the potential impacts of climate change in Alaska have focused primarily on describing expected changes to the physical environment and the ecosystem, and less on describing how these changes, in addition to changes in animal and environmental health, could affect human health. Thus, a careful analysis of how climate change could affect the health of people living in Alaska is warranted. The Alaska Division of Public Health has conducted such an assessment using the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework; the assessment is based on the current National Climate Assessment (NCA) predictions for Alaska. The document is intended to provide a broad overview of the potential adverse human health impacts of climate change in Alaska and to present examples of adaptation strategies for communities to consider when planning their own response efforts. This document does not present a new model for climate change in Alaska, and it does not offer a critique of the NCA predictions for Alaska.
Documents

AssessmentofthePotentialHealthImpactsof.pdf

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Bacterial communities in ancient permafrost profiles of Svalbard, Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289236
Source
J Basic Microbiol. 2017 Dec; 57(12):1018-1036
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Dec-2017
Author
Purnima Singh
Shiv M Singh
Ram N Singh
Simantini Naik
Utpal Roy
Alok Srivastava
Manfred Bölter
Author Affiliation
Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS), Pilani-K.K. Birla Goa Campus, Zuarinagar, Goa, India.
Source
J Basic Microbiol. 2017 Dec; 57(12):1018-1036
Date
Dec-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Bacteria - classification - genetics
Bacterial Load
Biota
Cluster analysis
DNA, Bacterial - chemistry - genetics
DNA, Ribosomal - chemistry - genetics
Permafrost - microbiology
Phylogeny
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S - genetics
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Svalbard
Abstract
Permafrost soils are unique habitats in polar environment and are of great ecological relevance. The present study focuses on the characterization of bacterial communities from permafrost profiles of Svalbard, Arctic. Counts of culturable bacteria range from 1.50?×?103 to 2.22?×?105 CFU?g-1 , total bacterial numbers range from 1.14?×?105 to 5.52?×?105 cells?g-1 soil. Bacterial isolates are identified through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Arthrobacter and Pseudomonas are the most dominant genera, and A. sulfonivorans, A. bergeri, P. mandelii, and P. jessenii as the dominant species. Other species belong to genera Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Nesterenkonia, Psychrobacter, Rhizobium, Rhodococcus, Sphingobacterium, Sphingopyxis, Stenotrophomonas, and Virgibacillus. To the best of our knowledge, genera Acinetobacter, Enterobacter, Nesterenkonia, Psychrobacter, Rhizobium, Sphingobacterium, Sphingopyxis, Stenotrophomonas, and Virgibacillus are the first northernmost records from Arctic permafrost. The present study fills the knowledge gap of culturable bacterial communities and their chronological characterization from permafrost soils of Ny-Ålesund (79°N), Arctic.
PubMed ID
28940222 View in PubMed
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Bacterial community in ancient permafrost alluvium at the Mammoth Mountain (Eastern Siberia).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286503
Source
Gene. 2017 Dec 15;636:48-53
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-15-2017
Author
Anatoli Brouchkov
Marsel Kabilov
Svetlana Filippova
Olga Baturina
Victor Rogov
Valery Galchenko
Andrey Mulyukin
Oksana Fursova
Gennady Pogorelko
Source
Gene. 2017 Dec 15;636:48-53
Date
Dec-15-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bacteria - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Geologic Sediments - chemistry - microbiology
Metagenomics
Permafrost - microbiology
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S - genetics
Siberia
Abstract
Permanently frozen (approx. 3.5Ma) alluvial Neogene sediments exposed in the Aldan river valley at the Mammoth Mountain (Eastern Siberia) are unique, ancient, and poorly studied permafrost environments. So far, the structure of the indigenous bacterial community has remained unknown. Use of 16S metagenomic analysis with total DNA isolation using DNA Spin Kit for Soil (MO-Bio) and QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit (Qiagen) has revealed the major and minor bacterial lineages in the permafrost alluvium sediments. In sum, 61 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) with 31,239 reads (Qiagen kit) and 15,404 reads (Mo-Bio kit) could be assigned to the known taxa. Only three phyla, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes, comprised >5% of the OTUs abundance and accounted for 99% of the total reads. OTUs pertaining to the top families (Chitinophagaceae, Caulobacteraceae, Sphingomonadaceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae, Halomonadaceae) held >90% of reads. The abundance of Actinobacteria was less (0.7%), whereas members of other phyla (Deinococcus-Thermus, Cyanobacteria/Chloroplast, Fusobacteria, and Acidobacteria) constituted a minor fraction of reads. The bacterial community in the studied ancient alluvium differs from other permafrost sediments, mainly by predominance of Bacteroidetes (>52%). The diversity of this preserved bacterial community has the potential to cause effects unknown if prompted to thaw and spread with changing climate. Therefore, this study elicits further reason to study how reintroduction of these ancient bacteria could affect the surrounding ecosystem, including current bacterial species.
PubMed ID
28916375 View in PubMed
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Behavior of organic contaminants in permafrost-affected soils.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297120
Source
University of Hamburg, Department of Geosciences, Faculty of Mathematics, Computer Science and Natural Sciences. 194 p.
Publication Type
Dissertation
Date
2015
fruitful discussion during all stages of this work and the helpful comments on the draft of this thesis. I want to thank my second supervisor Prof. E.-M. Pfeiffer for guidance in the vast field of peculiarities of permafrost-affected soils and support in finishing the thesis. Maike Schönborn, Maren
  1 document  
Author
Zschocke, Anne.
Source
University of Hamburg, Department of Geosciences, Faculty of Mathematics, Computer Science and Natural Sciences. 194 p.
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Dissertation
File Size
7407547
Keywords
Permafrost
Contaminants
Soils
Freezing
Oil exploration
Arctic
Abstract
From Introduction: Organic contaminants entering soils pose a threat to soil functions and properties (Valentín et al., 2013; White & Claxton, 2004; Yaron et al., 2012). In freezing soils, especially permafrost-affected soils, the freezing process leads to changes in soil’s physical and chemical properties (Yershov, 1998). Soils represent a complex heterogeneous, multi-phase system, with a large interfacial area, which causes phenomena such as adsorption of water and chemicals, ion exchange and capillarity (Hillel, 2003). Therefore the interaction of freezing soils and organic contaminants is characterized by high complexity and a variety of processes, whose effects may accumulate or abate each other.
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74 records – page 1 of 8.