The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, cause, severity, and patterns of associated injuries of limb peripheral nerve injuries sustained by patients with multiple injuries seen at a regional Level 1 trauma center.
Patients sustaining injuries to the radial, median, ulnar, sciatic, femoral, peroneal, or tibial nerves were identified using a prospectively collected computerized database, maintained by Sunnybrook Health Science Centre, and a detailed chart review was undertaken.
From a trauma population of 5,777 patients treated between January 1, 1986, and November 30, 1996, 162 patients were identified as having an injury to at least one of the peripheral nerves of interest, yielding a prevalence of 2.8%. These 162 patients sustained a total of 200 peripheral nerve injuries, 121 of which were in the upper extremity. The mean patient age was 34.6 years (SEM +/- 1.1 year), and 83% of patients were male. The mean injury severity score was 23.1 (+/-0.90), and the mean length of hospital stay was 28 days (+/-1.8).
Motor vehicles crashes predominated (46%) as the cause of injury. The most frequently injured nerve was the radial nerve (58 injuries), and in the lower limb, the peroneal nerve was most commonly injured (39 injuries). Diagnosis of a peripheral nerve injury was made within 4 days of admission to Sunnybrook Health Science Centre in 78% of the cases. Surgery was required to treat 54% of patients. Head injuries were the most common associated injury, occurring in 60% of patients. Other common associated injuries included fractures and dislocations. The present report aims to aid in identification and treatment of peripheral nerve injuries.
To identify factors associated with the reporting of cold sensitivity, by comparing cases to controls with regard to anthropometry, previous illnesses and injuries, as well as external exposures such as hand-arm vibration (HAV) and ambient cold.
Through a questionnaire responded to by the general population, ages 18-70, living in Northern Sweden (N?=?12,627), cold sensitivity cases (N?=?502) and matched controls (N?=?1004) were identified, and asked to respond to a second questionnaire focusing on different aspects of cold sensitivity as well as individual and external exposure factors suggested to be related to the condition. Conditional logistic regression analyses were performed to determine statistical significance.
In total, 997 out of 1506 study subjects answered the second questionnaire, yielding a response rate of 81.7%. In the multiple conditional logistic regression model, identified associated factors among cold sensitive cases were: frostbite affecting the hands (OR 10.3, 95% CI 5.5-19.3); rheumatic disease (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.7-5.7); upper extremity nerve injury (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3-3.0); migraines (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.3); and vascular disease (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-2.9). A body mass index?=?25 was inversely related to reporting of cold sensitivity (0.4, 95% CI 0.3-0.6).
Cold sensitivity was associated with both individual and external exposure factors. Being overweight was associated with a lower occurrence of cold sensitivity; and among the acquired conditions, both cold injuries, rheumatic diseases, nerve injuries, migraines and vascular diseases were associated with the reporting of cold sensitivity.
Epidemiology, results of treatment, impact on activity of daily living (ADL), and costs for treatment of digital nerve injuries have not been considered consistently. Case notes of patients of 0-99 years of age living in Malmö municipality, Sweden, who presented with a digital nerve injury and were referred to the Department of Hand Surgery in 1995-2005 were analysed retrospectively. The incidence was 6.2/100 000 inhabitants and year. Most commonly men (75%; median age 29 years) were injured. Isolated nerve injuries and concomitant tendon injuries were equally common. The direct costs (hospital stay, operation, outpatient visits, visits to a nurse and/or a hand therapist) for a concomitant tendon injury was almost double compared with an isolated digital nerve injury (6136 EUR [range, 744-29 689 EUR] vs 2653 EUR [range, 468-6949 EUR]). More than 50% of the patients who worked were injured at work and 79% lost time from work (median 59 days [range 3-337]). Permanent nerve dysfunction for the individual patient with ADL problems and subjective complaints of fumbleness, cold sensitivity, and pain occur in the patients despite surgery. It is concluded that digital nerve injuries, often considered as a minor injury and that affect young people at productive age, cause costs, and disability. Focus should be directed against prevention of the injury and to improve nerve regeneration from different aspects.
Neuropathic pain conditions are common after nerve injuries and are suggested to be regulated in part by genetic factors. We have previously demonstrated a strong genetic influence of the rat major histocompatibility complex on development of neuropathic pain behavior after peripheral nerve injury. In order to study if the corresponding human leukocyte antigen complex (HLA) also influences susceptibility to pain, we performed an association study in patients that had undergone surgery for inguinal hernia (n=189). One group had developed a chronic pain state following the surgical procedure, while the control group had undergone the same type of operation, without any persistent pain. HLA DRB1genotyping revealed a significantly increased proportion of patients in the pain group carrying DRB1*04 compared to patients in the pain-free group. Additional typing of the DQB1 gene further strengthened the association; carriers of the DQB1*03:02 allele together with DRB1*04 displayed an increased risk of postsurgery pain with an odds risk of 3.16 (1.61-6.22) compared to noncarriers. This finding was subsequently replicated in the clinical material of patients with lumbar disc herniation (n=258), where carriers of the DQB1*03:02 allele displayed a slower recovery and increased pain. In conclusion, we here for the first time demonstrate that there is an HLA-dependent risk of developing pain after surgery or lumbar disc herniation; mediated by the DRB1*04 - DQB1*03:02 haplotype. Further experimental and clinical studies are needed to fine-map the HLA effect and to address underlying mechanisms.
We present a study of the pattern of elbow fractures in children under 15 years of age, during a 5-year period, with special reference to supracondylar humerus fractures. The incidence was 308/100 000 per year; 58% of the children had a fracture in the supracondylar area of the humerus. There were 355 elbow fractures, and there were 164 boys (46%) and 191 girls (54%). The mean age for the entire group was 7.9 years (for boys, 7.2 years; for girls, 8.5 years). Of 209 supracondylar fractures (including 5 combination fractures), 134 were type I, 40 were type II, and 35 were type III (as classified by Gartland). Associated temporary nerve injuries involving the median, radial, and ulnar nerves were seen in 15 patients with type III supracondylar fractures. Associated brachial artery injuries were seen in 6 patients, 5 of whom had type III fractures.
Flexor tendon injuries cause significant morbidity in working-age population. The epidemiology of these injuries in adult population is not well known. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of flexor tendon injuries in a Northern Finnish population.
Data on flexor tendon injuries, from 2004 to 2010, were retrieved from patient records from four hospitals, which offer surgical repair of the flexor tendon injuries in a well-defined area in Northern Finland. The incidence of flexor tendon injury as well as the gender-specific incidence rates was calculated. Mechanism of injury, concomitant nerve injuries, and re-operations were also recorded.
The incidence rate of flexor tendon injury was 7.0/100,000 person-years. The incidence was higher in men and inversely related to age. The most common finger to be affected was the fifth digit. In 37% of injuries also digital nerve was affected. The most common finger to have simultaneous digital nerve injury was the thumb.
Flexor tendon laceration is a relatively rare injury. It predominantly affects working-aged young males and frequently includes a nerve injury, which requires microsurgical skills from the surgeon performing the repair. This study describes epidemiology of flexor tendon injuries and therefore helps planning the surgical and rehabilitation services needed to address this entity.