BACKGROUND: To date only a few studies have evaluated the long-term influence of smoking and smoking cessation on periodontal health. The present study, therefore, was undertaken with the aim to prospectively investigate the influence of smoking exposure over time on the periodontal health condition in a targeted population before and after a follow-up interval of 10 years. METHODS: The primary study base consisted of a population of occupational musicians that was investigated the first time in 1982 and scheduled for reinvestigation in 1992 and 2002. The 1992 investigation included 101 individuals from the baseline study constituting a prospective cohort including 16 smokers, who had continued to smoke throughout the entire length of the 10-year period; 28 former smokers who had ceased smoking an average of approximately 9 years before the commencement of the baseline study; 40 non-smokers, who denied ever having smoked tobacco; and 17 individuals whose smoking pattern changed or for whom incomplete data were available. The clinical and radiographic variables used for the assessment of the periodontal health condition of the individual were frequency of periodontally diseased sites (probing depth > or =4 mm), gingival bleeding (%), and periodontal bone height (%). The oral hygiene standard was evaluated by means of a standard plaque index. RESULTS: The changes over the 10 years with respect to frequency of diseased sites indicated an increased frequency in continuous smokers versus decreased frequencies in former smokers and non-smokers. Controlling for age and frequency of diseased sites at baseline, the 10-year change was significantly associated with smoking (P
The aim of this study was to assess whether current unemployment was associated with poor oral health and whether there was a difference in oral health according to the duration of the current unemployment.
As part of the Health 2000 Survey in Finland (a nationwide comprehensive health examination survey), we used its data based on interviews, questionnaires, and clinical oral examinations of the 30- to 63-year-old respondents (n = 4773). Current employment status was measured in its dichotomous form, employed versus unemployed, and length of current unemployment was classified into four categories. We measured oral health in terms of numbers of missing teeth, of sound teeth, of filled teeth, of decayed teeth, and of teeth with deepened periodontal pockets (=4 mm, =6 mm). Poisson regression models were fitted for all oral health outcomes except number of decayed teeth, for which negative binomial regression model was used. Oral health-related behaviors and sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors were added to the analyses.
The unemployed subjects had higher numbers of missing teeth, of decayed teeth, and of teeth with periodontal pockets than the employed ones. The association remained consistent even after adjustments. Oral health-related behaviors seemed to mediate the association. We found no association between unemployment and number of sound teeth. Current long-term unemployment showed stronger association with poor oral health than short-term among women.
The unemployed can be considered as a risk group for poor oral health. Oral healthcare should be reoriented toward those who are unemployed.
The aim of the present study was to compare the prevalence of periodontitis and alveolar bone loss among individuals with psoriasis and a group of randomly selected controls.
Fifty individuals with psoriasis and 121 controls completed a structured questionnaire, and were examined clinically and radiographically. Oral examination included numbers of missing teeth, probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), presence of dental plaque and bleeding on probing, as well as alveolar bone loss from radiographs. Questionnaires requested information on age, gender, education, dental care, smoking habits, general diseases and medicament use. For adjustment for baseline differences between psoriasis individuals and controls the propensity score based on gender, age and education was computed using multivariate logistic regression. A subsample analysis for propensity score matched psoriasis individuals (n?=?50) and controls (n?=?50) was performed.
When compared with controls, psoriasis individuals had significantly more missing teeth and more sites with plaque and bleeding on probing. The prevalence of moderate and severe periodontitis was significantly higher among psoriasis individuals (24%) compared to healthy controls (10%). Similarly, 36% of psoriasis cases had one or more sites with radiographic bone loss =3 mm, compared to 13% of controls. Logistic regression analysis showed that the association between moderate/severe periodontitis and psoriasis remained statistically significant when adjusted for propensity score, but was attenuated when smoking was entered into the model. The association between psoriasis and one or more sites with bone loss =3 mm remained statistically significant when adjusted for propensity score and smoking and regularity of dental visits. In the propensity score (age, gender and education) matched sample (n?=?100) psoriasis remained significantly associated with moderate/severe periodontitis and radiographic bone loss.
Within the limits of the present study, periodontitis and radiographic bone loss is more common among patients with moderate/severe psoriasis compared with the general population. This association remained significant after controlling for confounders.
In a cross-sectional study design we test the hypothesis of whether obesity in adolescence is associated with periodontal risk indicators or disease.
Obese adolescents (n=52) and normal weight subjects (n=52) with a mean age of 14.5 years were clinically examined with respect to dental plaque, gingival inflammation, periodontal pockets and incipient alveolar bone loss. The subjects answered a questionnaire concerning medical conditions, oral hygiene habits, smoking habits and sociodemographic background. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and adjusted for age and gender (BMI-SDS). Samples of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) were analyzed for the levels of adiponectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), interleukin-1ß (IL-ß), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-a).
Obese subjects exhibited more gingival inflammation (P4 mm) (P
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether periodontal condition is associated with hypertension and systolic blood pressure.
The study population consisted of dentate, non-diabetic, non-smoking individuals aged 30-49 years (n = 1296) in the national Health 2000 Survey in Finland. The number of teeth with deepened (=4 mm) and deep (=6 mm) periodontal pockets and the number of sextants with gingival bleeding were used as explanatory variables. Hypertension and systolic blood pressure were used as outcome variables.
There was no consistent association between the number of teeth with deepened (=4 mm) (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.95-1.01) or deep (=6 mm) (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.90-1.12) periodontal pockets and hypertension after adjusting for confounding factors. Nor was there any essential association between the number of bleeding sextants and hypertension.
Periodontal pocketing and gingival bleeding did not appear to be related to hypertension in non-diabetic, non-smoking individuals aged 30-49 years. Further studies using experimental study designs would be required to determine the role of infectious periodontal diseases in the development or progression of hypertension.
To explore the association of depression and anxiety with two oral health outcomes, dental caries and periodontal disease and assess possible mediators for any of the associations.
Secondary analysis of the Finnish Health 2000 Survey. Depression was assessed with Beck's Depression Inventory and anxiety with Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Number of decayed teeth included carious lesions reaching dentine; periodontal disease was number of teeth with periodontal pockets of 4 mm or deeper. Third molars were excluded. The association of mental disorders and oral health was tested in regression models adjusted for confounders and potential mediators.
Depression was associated with number of decayed teeth only among 35- to 54-year-olds. The association between anxiety and the number of decayed teeth was not statistically significant. Depression and periodontal pocketing were not significantly associated.
Depression was significantly associated with number of decayed teeth only among participants aged 35-54 old and not with other age groups. Neither depression nor anxiety was significantly related to periodontal disease.
All the 1012, 55-yr-old citizens of Oulu (a medium-sized Finnish town) were invited to a clinical examination, and 780 of them participated. The associations of lifestyle with periodontal health were analyzed in the 527 dentate subjects. Periodontal pockets deeper than 3 mm were recorded as a percentage of the surfaces at risk. Lifestyle was measured by questions about dietary habits, smoking habits, alcohol consumption and physical activity. Lifestyle had an independent association with periodontal health. Periodontal pocketing increased with an unhealthier lifestyle. Lifestyle could explain some of the social and sex differences in periodontal health.
Periodontal disease indicators were evaluated according to the periodontal treatment need system (PTNS) in random samples of 35-year-old citizens of Oslo in 1973 and 1984. The study indicated that although periodontal disease was a common finding in both samples, there was a significant reduction in score C (indicating need for complex periodontal treatment) in 1984 compared to 1973. Whereas 37.9% of the subjects showed inflamed pockets deeper than 5 mm (score C) in 1973, only 22.9% scored C in 1984 (non-Caucasians excluded). This reduction was most pronounced in females. The mean number of C-quadrants in subjects needing complex periodontal treatment was also reduced from 2.0 in 1973 to 1.7 in 1984. Further analyses of the 1984 sample showed that the mean number of C-quadrants was significantly lower in subjects with low OHI-S scores and in regular dental visitors, whereas sex, years at school, toothbrushing frequency, interdental cleaning habits, previous periodontal therapy, self-experienced need for treatment, health attitude or smoking habits, did not seem to influence the prevalence of score C.
A random sample of 35-year-old subjects from Oslo took part in a dental survey in 1973 and were re-examined in 1988. Eighty-one subjects (85%) attended the final examination. The need for periodontal treatment was assessed by the Periodontal Treatment Need System (PTNS), and the oral hygiene by the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S). The participants attended a structured interview and answered a questionnaire about general and dental health habits as well as psycho-social factors. Only small changes in the distribution of subjects in the different PTNS categories were found to have taken place during the 15 years. In 1973, 56.8% were in need of scaling (Class B) and 32.1% had one or more deep inflamed pockets (Class C), and in 1988 the scores were 54.3% and 30.1% respectively. A logistic regression model was used to study the associations between risk factors and increased treatment need, as expressed by increase in the number of C-quadrants. Increased number of C-quadrants was positively associated both with short duration of education and with no interdental cleaning. Using a socio-ecological model for periodontal diseases, variables describing the items "behaviour" and "environment" were found to be most closely associated with increased need for periodontal treatment.
To evaluate if the presence of periodontitis is associated with carotid arterial calcifications diagnosed on panoramic radiographs in an elderly population.
Study individuals were randomly selected from the Swedish civil registration database representing the aging population (60-96 years) in Karlskrona, Sweden. Bleeding on probing (BOP) and the deepest probing measurement at each tooth were registered. The proportions of teeth with a probing depth = 5 mm and the proportion of teeth with bleeding on probing were calculated. Analog panoramic radiographs were taken and the proportion of sites with a distance = 5 mm between the alveolar bone level and the cement-enamel junction (CEJ) were assessed. A diagnosis of periodontitis was declared if a distance between the alveolar bone level and the CEJ = 5 mm could be identified from the panoramic radiographs at > 10% of sites, probing depth of = 5 mm at one tooth or more and with BOP at > 20% of teeth.
Readable radiographs were obtained from 499 individuals. Carotid calcification was identified in 39.1%. Individuals were diagnosed with periodontitis in 18.4%. Data analysis demonstrated that individuals with periodontitis had a higher prevalence of carotid calcifications (Pearson ?(2) = 4.05 p