In 1990, as part of a major health status assessment, a dental survey was carried out on a 20 per cent random sample of the adult population in the Keewatin region of the Northwest Territories. A 73 per cent response rate was obtained. Of the 397 people examined, 334 (88 per cent) identified themselves as Inuit. More than 20 per cent of the respondents were edentulous, including 10 per cent of those 18 to 34 years old. The median DMFT was 24 for all respondents and 21 for dentulous respondents. There was a significant difference between Inuit and non-Inuit respondents, which was most marked in the 18 to 34 year old age group (mean DMFT 22.1 versus 15.6, p
The aim of this study was to determine dental health status in two separate groups of Chilean and Polish refugees in Sweden. In Scandinavia, Sweden has the largest number of immigrants--1 million out of a population of 8.3 million. Since 1975, most immigrants have been refugees and their families. During 1978-82 Sweden granted residency to 20,000 refugees, the two largest groups being Chileans and Poles. In 1981-83 a sample of 193 Chilean and 92 Polish refugees in the county of Stockholm were selected for this study. The investigation consisted of a questionnaire followed by clinical examination, including roentgenograms. The average age was 34.0 years in the Chilean group and 34.8 years in the Polish group. The Chileans had been in Sweden for 17.3 months on an average and the Poles for 16.0 months. The Chileans had an average of 10.0 carious surfaces, D(s), and the Poles 11.3. Gingivitis was recorded in 87% of the total number of sites examined in the Chilean group. The corresponding figure in the Polish group was 79%. Of the Chileans 36.5% and of the Poles 32.5% had periodontal pockets measuring more than 5 mm. The results indicate that, when compared with Swedish individuals of a corresponding age, the refugee groups have a high prevalence of caries and periodontal disease.
In recent years the impact of ever-increasing numbers of refugees on the resources of the host countries has become a global concern. Health personnel face unanticipated demands complicated by different cultural, ethnic and religious factors and an unfamiliar disease panorama. Sweden today has around 1 million immigrants, 15% of the population. The aim of this thesis was to describe oral status with respect to caries and periodontal conditions, to analyse the need for dental treatment, to evaluate the effect of a preventive dental health programme, to study attitudes and knowledge of preventive dentistry and to describe and analyse utilization of dental services by different groups of adult refugees in Sweden. Three different methods were used: a descriptive clinical survey of a random sample of 193 Chilean and 92 Polish refugees, an experimental survey of a random sample of 159 Chilean refugees and a register survey, using national health statistics, consisting of a random sample of 2,489 refugees arriving in Sweden 1975-1985. The Chilean and Polish refugees had markedly poorer oral status than corresponding Swedish population groups. No association could be found between oral health or estimated treatment need and the length of time in Sweden. The simplified preventive program in the form of group discussion had a lasting effect on improved periodontal conditions and also improved knowledge of dental health care in the group of Chilean refugees. The register survey showed a generally low utilization of dental services but a high dental consumption among adult refugees in Sweden. The total treatment time for a course of treatment showed no marked decrease with subsequent courses of treatment. Immigration may have a profound effect on oral health care needs in a given population by introducing undetermined accumulated needs for oral care, and by stimulating changes in attitudes to and preferences in oral health and care.
The aim of the present study was to compare data on dental care habits and knowledge of oral health in four cross-sectional epidemiological studies carried out in 1973,1983,1993, and 2003. The 1973 study constituted a random sample of 1,000 individuals evenly distributed in the age groups 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 years. The same age groups with addition of a group of 80-year-olds were included in the 1983, 1993 and 2003 studies, which comprised 1,104, 1,078, and 987 individuals, respectively. A questionnaire about dental care habits and knowledge of oral health was used in connection with a clinical and radiographic examination. The same questions were used in all the four studies. An addition to the 1993 and 2003 investigations were questions concerning ethnic background. In 2003 approximately 90-95 per cent of all individuals were visiting the dentist on a regular basis every or every second year. The 30- and 40-yea r-olds, however, did not visit a dentist as regularly in 2003 as in 1993. In these age groups 21-24 per cent of the individuals, respectively, reported that they had not visited a dentist in the last 2 years. Almost all children 3-15 years old received their dental care within the Public Dental Service (PDS). During the period 1973-2003 an increase in percentage of individuals aged 20-50 years treated by the PDS was seen compared to private practice, while among 60-80 year-olds there were only minor changes. Most so-year-olds and older received their dental care by private practitioners. About 70-80 per cent of all adults in 2003 were enrolled in a recall system on the dentist's initiative while in 1973 most appointments were based on the patient's own initiative. The number of individuals who were frightened, 5-17 per cent, or felt discomfort at the prospect of an appointment with the dentist was more or less the same during the whole period. The knowledge of the etiology of dental diseases did not changed much between 1973 and 2003. The frequency of toothbrushing increased since 1973 and in 2003 more than 90 per cent of all individuals brushed their teeth twice or once a day. The use of dental floss and toothpicks decreased in 2003 compared to 1983 and 1993. Almost all individuals in 2003 used fluoride toothpaste. It was obvious that the dental team constituted the main source of dental health information. For the age groups 20 and 30 years information from friends and relatives was also important. In the age groups 3-20 years up to 45 per cent of the individuals were consuming soft drinks every day or several times a week.
To determine the distribution and determinants of periodontal health in adult members of the Sandy Bay First Nation in Manitoba, Canada.
Cross-sectional study based on face-to-face interviews and oral examinations.
Face-to-face interviews and oral examinations were performed on a convenience sample of 107 individuals to assess Debris Index, Calculus Index, Gingival Index and clinical attachment loss (CAL). Chi-square, Fisher's exact, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to find variables significantly associated with 2 outcome variables: dichotomous mean CAL ( 2.5mm) and dichotomous severe periodontitis. Variables found to be significantly associated with either of the outcome variables were entered into logistic regression analysis to look for significant independent effects (P
The prevalence of early periodontal destruction was assessed in a group of 516 14-year-old Iraqi schoolchildren who had not been offered public dental care programmes. Vertical bone loss adjacent to the proximal surfaces of first molars was used to indicate an incpient periodontal lesion, and the prevalence of subjects diagnosed as having one or more sites with this criterion in the Iraqi group was compared with those of 2 Scandinavian populations of the same age. These comprised 241 Norwegians who had received regular dental care and 561 Danes with or without such programmes. In the Iraqi group, 11.5% showed 1 or more sites with radiographic bone loss. However, few sites exhibited deep defects. There were significantly fewer Norwegian teenagers showing early periodontal lesions as compared to the Iraqi group (p less than 0.01) and the Danish subjects with no school dental programmes (p less than 0.01). Danish teenagers receiving regular dental care did not differ from the Norwegian group. It was concluded that the criterion used in the present study seems suitable for detecting differences in the prevalence of incipient radiographic periodontal lesions among young populations, and that the utilization of public dental care services may be an important factor in explaining such differences.
The purpose of the present study was to assess the periodontal status of Pakistani immigrants in Norway, a Third World population in an industrialized country. The findings were related to treatment needs, socio-demographic variables and cultural beliefs about periodontal health. The mean number of remaining teeth ranged from 27.7 in the 20-24-year-old age group to 25.1 in the group of 35-year-olds and older. Very few of the study population had no plaque or no subgingival calculus. Only 7.5% of the participants exhibited no bleeding at any index teeth. Age and residence in Pakistan were the strongest predictors of subgingival calculus and pocket depth. Those from the rural areas of Pakistan had deeper pockets than those from the cities. The data showed a population with high prevalences of teeth with plaque, subgingival calculus and frequent gingival bleeding, but few sites with deep pockets. A periodontal treatment need index would indicate a substantial amount of treatment time. The present study suggests that also the perceived periodontal conditions, should be taken into account when periodontal services and health education strategies are planned. The concept of periodontal illness is introduced, defined as a person's perceptions and interpretations of periodontal symptoms.
Previous studies among older adults have demonstrated that oral disease frequently leads to dysfunction, discomfort, and disability. This study aimed to assess variations in the social impact of oral conditions among six strata of people aged 65 years and older: residents of metropolitan Adelaide and rural Mt Gambier, South Australia; residents of metropolitan Toronto-North York and non-metropolitan Simcoe-Sudbury counties, Ontario, Canada; and blacks and whites in the Piedmont region of North Carolina (NC), United States. Subjects were participants in three oral epidemiological studies of random samples of the elderly populations in the six strata. Some 1,642 participants completed a 49-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) questionnaire which asked about impacts caused by problems with the teeth, mouth, or dentures during the previous 12 months. The percentage of dentate people reporting impacts fairly often or very often was greatest among NC blacks for 41 of the OHIP items. Two summary variables of social impact were used as dependent variables in bivariate and multivariate least-squares regression analyses. Among dentate people, mean levels of social impact were greatest for NC blacks and lowest for NC whites, while people from South Australia and Ontario had intermediate levels of social impact (P