BACKGROUND: To date only a few studies have evaluated the long-term influence of smoking and smoking cessation on periodontal health. The present study, therefore, was undertaken with the aim to prospectively investigate the influence of smoking exposure over time on the periodontal health condition in a targeted population before and after a follow-up interval of 10 years. METHODS: The primary study base consisted of a population of occupational musicians that was investigated the first time in 1982 and scheduled for reinvestigation in 1992 and 2002. The 1992 investigation included 101 individuals from the baseline study constituting a prospective cohort including 16 smokers, who had continued to smoke throughout the entire length of the 10-year period; 28 former smokers who had ceased smoking an average of approximately 9 years before the commencement of the baseline study; 40 non-smokers, who denied ever having smoked tobacco; and 17 individuals whose smoking pattern changed or for whom incomplete data were available. The clinical and radiographic variables used for the assessment of the periodontal health condition of the individual were frequency of periodontally diseased sites (probing depth > or =4 mm), gingival bleeding (%), and periodontal bone height (%). The oral hygiene standard was evaluated by means of a standard plaque index. RESULTS: The changes over the 10 years with respect to frequency of diseased sites indicated an increased frequency in continuous smokers versus decreased frequencies in former smokers and non-smokers. Controlling for age and frequency of diseased sites at baseline, the 10-year change was significantly associated with smoking (P
In 1990, as part of a major health status assessment, a dental survey was carried out on a 20 per cent random sample of the adult population in the Keewatin region of the Northwest Territories. A 73 per cent response rate was obtained. Of the 397 people examined, 334 (88 per cent) identified themselves as Inuit. More than 20 per cent of the respondents were edentulous, including 10 per cent of those 18 to 34 years old. The median DMFT was 24 for all respondents and 21 for dentulous respondents. There was a significant difference between Inuit and non-Inuit respondents, which was most marked in the 18 to 34 year old age group (mean DMFT 22.1 versus 15.6, p
Utilization of dental services by 30 diabetic and 30 nondiabetic subjects was assessed by longitudinal monitoring over a period of 3 years. All subjects were examined clinically three times, and their treatment consisted mainly of cariologic and periodontal treatment. The treatment was delivered by a dentist and an expanded-duty dental hygienist. The study groups were similar with regard to the total number of dental visits needed. However, the treatment of diabetic subjects was more demanding in that more dentist's workload was needed for the diabetic group. They also missed more appointments without cancellation and therefore more office time had to be reserved for them.
Since the mid-1970s a number of investigators have developed measures of the extent to which oral disorders compromise functional, social and psychological well-being. They have also examined the associations between clinical indicators of oral health status and these subjective indicators. In general, these associations have been inconsistent and weak. One reason for this might be that the subjective indicators employed were rudimentary and insensitive to the health outcomes of oral disorders. The development of the Oral Health Impact Profile, a more sophisticated measure of the health outcomes of oral disorders, provided a method to examine this hypothesis. Using data from an oral health survey of older adults, we examined the associations between OHIP scores and a variety of clinical indicators of tooth loss, caries and periodontal disease. Even with this measure the associations were predominantly weak, the strongest of the correlations being 0.53. We also examined the influence of personal and sociodemographic characteristics on the relationship between tooth loss and its psychosocial outcomes. Five variables reflecting expectations and resources explained as much variance in OHIP scores as did the number of missing teeth. This analysis illustrates the essential distinction between disease and health and the way in which measures of oral health can be used to pursue fundamental issues in behavioural science and health services research.
AIM: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between educational level and dental disease, treatment needs and oral hygiene habits. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Randomized samples of 35-, 50-, 65- and 75-year-olds, classified according to the educational level: [low (LE): elementary school or higher (HE)], were identified. In 1091 subjects, a number of characteristics such as (i) number of teeth, (ii) periodontal attachment levels (PAL), (iii) caries and (iv) occlusal function were recorded. Educational level, oral hygiene and dietary habits were self-reported. Non-parametric variables were analyzed by chi2, Mann-Whitney U-Wilcoxon's rank sum tests, and parametric variables by Student's t-test (level of significance 95%). A two-way anova was performed on decayed, missing and filled surfaces to investigate the interaction between age and educational level. All statistical procedures were performed in the SPSS statistical package. RESULTS: The number of remaining teeth was similar for LE and HE in the 35-year olds (25.8 versus 26.6), but in the older age groups LE had significantly a larger number of missing teeth. The LE groups (except in 65-year olds) exhibited significantly more PAL loss. LE had significantly fewer healthy gingival units in all but the 75-year age group. In all age groups, LE had fewer intact tooth surfaces and a significantly poorer occlusal function. The frequency of tooth cleaning measures and dietary habits did not differ between LE and HE. CONCLUSION: Educational level was shown to influence the oral conditions and should be considered in assessing risk, and in planning appropriate preventive measures.
To explore the association of depression and anxiety with two oral health outcomes, dental caries and periodontal disease and assess possible mediators for any of the associations.
Secondary analysis of the Finnish Health 2000 Survey. Depression was assessed with Beck's Depression Inventory and anxiety with Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Number of decayed teeth included carious lesions reaching dentine; periodontal disease was number of teeth with periodontal pockets of 4 mm or deeper. Third molars were excluded. The association of mental disorders and oral health was tested in regression models adjusted for confounders and potential mediators.
Depression was associated with number of decayed teeth only among 35- to 54-year-olds. The association between anxiety and the number of decayed teeth was not statistically significant. Depression and periodontal pocketing were not significantly associated.
Depression was significantly associated with number of decayed teeth only among participants aged 35-54 old and not with other age groups. Neither depression nor anxiety was significantly related to periodontal disease.