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ACE gene polymorphism as a risk factor for ischemic cerebrovascular disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature48152
Source
Ann Intern Med. 1997 Sep 1;127(5):346-55
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1-1997
Author
B. Agerholm-Larsen
A. Tybjaerg-Hansen
R. Frikke-Schmidt
M L Grønholdt
G. Jensen
B G Nordestgaard
Author Affiliation
Herlev University Hospital, Denmark.
Source
Ann Intern Med. 1997 Sep 1;127(5):346-55
Date
Sep-1-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alleles
Brain Ischemia - enzymology - genetics
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark
Female
Genotype
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Mutation
Odds Ratio
Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A - genetics
Polymorphism, Genetic
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk
Risk factors
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Researchers have suggested that the deletional allele of the ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) gene insertion-deletion polymorphism is a potent risk factor for myocardial infarction. This association could not be confirmed in the Copenhagen City Heart Study, in which 10,150 persons were studied. The ACE gene polymorphism has also recently been suggested as a potent risk factor for ischemic cerebrovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between ACE gene polymorphism and ischemic cerebrovascular disease. DESIGN: Two case-referent studies and a cross-sectional study. SETTING: University hospital in Copenhagen, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Case-referent study 1: 35 women and 38 men who developed ischemic cerebrovascular disease before 50 years of age compared with 1454 women and 1737 men from a general population sample. Case-referent study 2: 82 women and 137 men with ischemic cerebrovascular disease and carotid stenosis greater than 40% compared with 4273 women and 3091 men from the general population sample. Cross-sectional study of the general population sample: 67 women and 93 men with ischemic cerebrovascular disease compared with 4077 women and 3156 men without such disease. MEASUREMENTS: Genotype; age; body mass index; smoking habits; levels of lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, and fibrinogen; and diagnosis of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and ischemic cerebrovascular disease. RESULTS: Odds ratios for ischemic cerebrovascular disease by ACE genotype classes were not significantly different from 1.0 in women or men in any of the three studies, separately or combined. In a logistic regression analysis that controlled for age and conventional cardiovascular risk factors, odds ratios in either sex still did not significantly differ from 1.0 in any study, separately or combined. CONCLUSION: In two case-referent studies, a cross-sectional study, and the three studies combined, no statistically significant difference was found in the development of ischemic cerebrovascular disease between genotype classes of the ACE gene polymorphism in women or men.
PubMed ID
9273825 View in PubMed
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ACE genotype and physical training effects: a randomized study among elderly Danes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature49706
Source
Aging Clin Exp Res. 2003 Aug;15(4):284-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2003
Author
Henrik Frederiksen
Lise Bathum
Charlotte Worm
Kaare Christensen
Lis Puggaard
Author Affiliation
Institute of Public Health, Epidemiology, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark. hfrederiksen@health.sdu.dk
Source
Aging Clin Exp Res. 2003 Aug;15(4):284-91
Date
Aug-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Biomechanics
Body Composition
Denmark
Exercise
Exercise Test
Frail Elderly
Gene Frequency
Genotype
Humans
Oxygen consumption
Patient Selection
Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A - genetics
Walking - physiology
Abstract
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The level of physical functioning (PF) late in life has, in recent years, been shown to be influenced by genetic factors. One of the most extensively studied genetic variants associated with PF and trainability is insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in the gene encoding Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE). However, ACE studies have mainly been conducted among younger persons in excellent physical shape. In this study, we examine whether the level of PF, trainability, or rate-of-change are associated with the ACE genotype among the elderly. METHODS: We used data from 4 randomized training studies of elderly Danes (N = 203). The measures of PF were self-report, maximal oxygen uptake, muscle strength, walking speed, and body composition. RESULTS: Overall, a favorable change in the measures of PF was observed in training groups compared with control groups. However, within groups, neither pre- or post-training/control period levels of PF nor differences in pre- and post-levels were associated with the ACE genotype. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of our randomized studies, we could not detect any association between the ACE genotype and the level of PF or change, regardless of whether response to physical training or spontaneous changes was studied.
PubMed ID
14661817 View in PubMed
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AGT M235T and ACE ID polymorphisms and exercise blood pressure in the HERITAGE Family Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature197889
Source
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2000 Jul;279(1):H368-74
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2000
Author
T. Rankinen
J. Gagnon
L. Pérusse
Y C Chagnon
T. Rice
A S Leon
J S Skinner
J H Wilmore
D C Rao
C. Bouchard
Author Affiliation
Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Human Genomics Laboratory, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70808, USA.
Source
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2000 Jul;279(1):H368-74
Date
Jul-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Amino Acid Substitution
Angiotensinogen - genetics
Blood Pressure - genetics - physiology
Canada
Cohort Studies
DNA Transposable Elements
Diastole
European Continental Ancestry Group
Exercise - physiology
Female
Genotype
Humans
Male
Oxygen consumption
Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A - genetics
Physical Exertion - physiology
Polymorphism, Genetic
Sequence Deletion
Sex Characteristics
Systole
United States
Abstract
We investigated the association between angiotensinogen (AGT) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphisms and exercise training responses of resting and exercise blood pressure (BP). BP at rest and during submaximal (50 watts) and maximal exercise tests was measured before and after 20 wk of endurance training in 476 sedentary normotensive Caucasian subjects from 99 families. AGT M235T and ACE insertion/deletion polymorphisms were typed with PCR-based methods. Men carrying the AGT MM and MT genotypes showed 3. 7 +/- 0.6 and 3.2 +/- 0.5 (SE) mmHg reductions, respectively, in diastolic BP at 50 watts (DBP(50)), whereas, in the TT homozygotes, the decrease was 0.4 +/- 1.0 mmHg (P = 0.016 for trend, adjusted for age, body mass index, and baseline DBP(50)). Men with the ACE DD genotype showed a slightly greater decrease in DBP(50) (4.4 +/- 0.6 mmHg) than the II and ID genotypes (2.8 +/- 0.7 and 2.4 +/- 0.5 mmHg, respectively, P = 0.050). Furthermore, a significant (P = 0.022) interaction effect between the AGT and ACE genes was noted for DBP(50); the AGT TT homozygotes carrying the ACE D allele showed no response to training. Men with the AGT TT genotype had greater (P = 0.007) diastolic BP (DBP) response to acute maximal exercise at baseline. However, the difference disappeared after the training period. No associations were found in women. These data suggest that, in men, the genetic variation in the AGT locus modifies the responsiveness of submaximal exercise DBP to endurance training, and interactions between the AGT and ACE loci can alter this response.
PubMed ID
10899077 View in PubMed
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The angiotensin-converting enzyme DD gene is associated with poor prognosis in Finnish sarcoidosis patients.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature201853
Source
Eur Respir J. 1999 Apr;13(4):723-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1999
Author
A. Pietinalho
K. Furuya
E. Yamaguchi
Y. Kawakami
O. Selroos
Author Affiliation
Mjölbolsta Hospital, Karis, Finland.
Source
Eur Respir J. 1999 Apr;13(4):723-6
Date
Apr-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Case-Control Studies
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Gene Frequency
Genotype
Humans
Male
Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A - genetics
Polymorphism, Genetic
Prognosis
Sarcoidosis, Pulmonary - enzymology - epidemiology - genetics
Time Factors
Abstract
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genotypes may reflect prognosis in sarcoidosis. They were determined in 59 Finnish sarcoidosis patients and 70 healthy control subjects. The prognosis of the sarcoidosis patients was determined after follow-up for 1, 2, 3, 5 and >5 yrs and classified as good (normal chest radiograph and lung function, no signs of extrapulmonary disease activity within 2 yrs from diagnosis), intermediate (neither good nor poor) or poor (persisting unstable pulmonary infiltrates, vital capacity and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide 5 yrs follow-up). The DD, ID and II genotypes were found in 31 and 27%, in 54 and 49%, and in 15 and 24% of patients and control subjects respectively. The odds ratio (DD+ID to II) was 1.45 (95% confidence interval 0.60-3.49). The D alelle was found more often in patients (58%) and in control subjects (51%) than the I allele but the difference was not statistically significant. Statistically significantly more patients with the DD genotype had a poor prognosis compared with patients with II homozygotes and ID heterozygotes. Among 11 patients with Löfgren's syndrome (bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy and erythema nodosum), four had the DD genotype. Three of these patients had a prognosis despite presenting a clinical picture usually associated with a good prognosis. The angiotensin-converting enzyme genotype may be a prognostic marker in sarcoidosis and larger studies are warranted to define its clinical utility.
PubMed ID
10362030 View in PubMed
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Angiotensin converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphism, angiotensinogen gene polymorphisms, family history of hypertension, and childhood blood pressure.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature33126
Source
Am J Hypertens. 1999 Sep;12(9 Pt 1):858-66
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1999
Author
L. Taittonen
M. Uhari
K. Kontula
K. Kainulainen
H. Miettinen
J. Turtinen
M. Nuutinen
Author Affiliation
Department of Pediatrics, University of Oulu, Finland.
Source
Am J Hypertens. 1999 Sep;12(9 Pt 1):858-66
Date
Sep-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Angiotensinogen - genetics
Blood Pressure - genetics
Child
Child, Preschool
Comparative Study
DNA - analysis
DNA Primers - chemistry
DNA Transposable Elements - genetics
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Gene Deletion
Genetic Code
Genetic markers
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Genotype
Humans
Hypertension - blood - genetics
Male
Minisatellite Repeats
Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A - genetics
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Polymorphism, Genetic
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Retrospective Studies
Abstract
Earlier epidemiologic studies have yielded inconsistent results on the extent and timing of the blood pressure (BP) increase in offspring of hypertensive parents. We hypothesized that a familial influence on the BP of the offspring exists from birth on, but becomes significant only later in childhood. We studied the influence of familial occurrence of hypertension on the BP of 3596 children aged 6 to 18 years during a 6-year follow-up. In addition, we examined the possible associations of BP variations with polymorphisms of two candidate genes for hypertension, ie, those coding for the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and those coding for angiotensinogen. A positive family history of hypertension was reflected as the occurrence of higher systolic BP values from the age of 9 years and upward among the females and from the age of 12 years and upward among the males. The mean differences in BP varied from 3.2 to 5.8 mm Hg (systolic) and 2.1 to 5.9 mm Hg (diastolic) between the female offspring of normotensive and hypertensive parents and grandparents. The systolic BP values were significantly higher among females with a hypertensive history in two generations in comparison with females from normotensive families. Among the male offspring of hypertensive and normotensive families, the BP differences were inconsistent. The deletion/deletion males had higher systolic BP values than those with other ACE genotypes. In contrast, variation at the angiotensinogen gene locus was not significantly associated with BP. We conclude that parental history of hypertension is a risk factor for high blood pressure among the offspring from the ages of 9 to 12 years and upward, and hypertension within two generations may enhance this effect. Although the common genetic variation of ACE may influence blood pressure in male children and adolescents, our data do not suggest a role for the common variation of the angiotensinogen gene as a BP regulator during childhood.
PubMed ID
10509542 View in PubMed
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Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphism in migraine patients.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature86810
Source
BMC Neurol. 2008;8:4
Publication Type
Article
Date
2008
Author
Tronvik Erling
Stovner Lars J
Bovim Gunnar
White Linda R
Gladwin Amanda J
Owen Kathryn
Schrader Harald
Author Affiliation
Department of Neurosciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway. Erling.Tronvik@ntnu.no
Source
BMC Neurol. 2008;8:4
Date
2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers - pharmacology
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors - pharmacology
Benzimidazoles - pharmacology
DNA Mutational Analysis
Drug Resistance - genetics
Female
Gene Deletion
Gene Frequency - genetics
Genetic Markers - genetics
Genetic Predisposition to Disease - genetics
Genetic Screening
Genotype
Humans
Lisinopril - pharmacology
Male
Middle Aged
Migraine Disorders - drug therapy - enzymology - genetics
Mutagenesis, Insertional - genetics
Norway
Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A - genetics
Polymorphism, Genetic - genetics
Risk factors
Tetrazoles - pharmacology
Abstract
BACKGROUND: The main objective of this study was to investigate the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) genotype as a possible risk factor for migraine (both with and without aura) compared to controls. We also wanted to examine whether a clinical response to an ACE inhibitor, lisinopril, or an angiotensin II receptor blocker, candesartan, in migraine prophylaxis was related to ACE genotype. METHODS: 347 migraine patients aged 18-68 (155 migraine without aura (MoA), 187 migraine with aura (MwA) and 5 missing aura subgroup data) and 403 healthy non-migrainous controls > 40 years of age were included in the study. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on the genomic DNA samples to obtain the ACE insertion (I)/deletion(D) polymorphisms. RESULTS: No significant differences between migraine patients and controls were found with regard to ACE genotype and allele distributions. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between the controls and the MwA or MoA subgroups. CONCLUSION: In our sample there is no association between ACE genotype or allele frequency and migraine. In addition, ACE genotype in our experience did not predict the clinical response to lisinopril or candesartan used as migraine prophylactics.
PubMed ID
18366776 View in PubMed
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Angiotensin-converting enzyme genotypes in the high- and low-risk area for coronary heart disease in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature216275
Source
Genet Epidemiol. 1995;12(4):391-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
1995
Author
M. Perola
A. Sajantila
C. Sarti
J. Stengård
M. Tamminen
P. Puska
J. Huttunen
J. Tuomilehto
L. Peltonen
Author Affiliation
Department of Human Molecular Genetics, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Genet Epidemiol. 1995;12(4):391-9
Date
1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Coronary Disease - enzymology - genetics
Female
Finland
Genotype
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - enzymology - genetics
Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A - genetics
Polymorphism, Genetic
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Abstract
The deletion/deletion genotype of the insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been suggested to be a risk factor for myocardial infarction (MI). The objective of this study was to evaluate whether genotype distributions of the I/D polymorphism of the ACE gene are different between individuals from high-risk and low-risk areas for coronary heart disease in the genetically isolated population of Finland and to assess the impact of this genetic risk factor by comparing individuals with different parental histories of MI. Representative population-based samples of middle-aged men (n = 363) and women (n = 358) from two areas of Finland were used. The area had a borderline significant effect on the prevalence of the genotype DD (beta = 0.35, SE = 0.16, X2 = 470, df = 1, P = 0.03), the DD genotype being more prevalent in eastern Finland (the high-risk area). The II genotype was more prevalent in women with parental history of MI, so we could not replicate the previous findings of the risk-increasing effect of DD genotype in this sample. Although the observed difference in the ACE DD genotype between the high-risk and low-risk areas for coronary heart disease might represent one of the genetic factors contributing to the difference in risk of coronary heart disease between eastern and southwestern Finland, the data emphasize the fact that also other risk factors, including other genes, contribute to this difference and the high incidence of MI in Finland.
PubMed ID
8536956 View in PubMed
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Angiotensin converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism in French Canadian subjects with premature coronary artery disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature204341
Source
Pathol Biol (Paris). 1998 May;46(5):295-300
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1998
Author
E. Wesolowska
M. Marcil
S. Lussier-Cacan
J. Davignon
Y. Latour
J. Genest
Author Affiliation
Cardiovascular Genetics Laboratory, Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, Québec, Canada.
Source
Pathol Biol (Paris). 1998 May;46(5):295-300
Date
May-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alleles
Apolipoproteins B - blood
Cholesterol, HDL - blood
Comorbidity
Coronary Artery Disease - epidemiology - ethnology - genetics
Diabetes Mellitus - epidemiology
Female
France - ethnology
Gene Frequency
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Hypertension - epidemiology
Lipids - blood
Male
Middle Aged
Mutagenesis, Insertional
Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A - genetics
Polymorphism, Genetic
Quebec - epidemiology
Risk factors
Sequence Deletion
Smoking - epidemiology
Abstract
The insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been postulated to be associated with CAD in some populations of European descent. As part of a study investigating metabolic and genetic factors in subjects with premature coronary artery disease (CAD), we examined the I/D polymorphism of the ACE gene in 134 subjects with premature CAD (105 men and 29 women, mean age 49 +/- 6 years) and 116 control subjects selected for health (71 men, 45 women; mean age 39 +/- 7 years). Both patients and controls were of French Canadian descent. As expected, significant differences were found between cases and controls with respect to age, plasma lipoprotein cholesterol, presence of smoking, diabetes and high blood pressure after correction for age. Multivariate analysis confirms the importance of age, HDL-C levels, smoking and apo B levels as determinants of CAD. Allele frequencies of the I and D polymorphism were 43.1% and 57.9% in controls, and 48.5% and 51.5% in CAD cases (chi 2 = 0.622, p = 0.430). No significant association between the I/D polymorphism and conventional cardiovascular risk factors, including plasma levels of lipids, lipoprotein cholesterol, diabetes or smoking, was found in cases or controls. Furthermore, the presence of the I/D polymorphism did not correlate with a history of hypertension or a family history of premature CAD in CAD patients. We conclude that, in our selected population, the I/D polymorphism of the ACE gene is not associated with CAD, conventional risk factors, or a family history of CAD. Although our sample size does not allow sufficient power to ascertain that the ACE I/D polymorphism is not associated with CAD, we do not recommend the routine measurement of the ACE polymorphism in our population to determine cardiovascular risk.
PubMed ID
9769888 View in PubMed
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Angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism in patients with acute and chronic pancreatitis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature151905
Source
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009 Sep;21(9):1032-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2009
Author
Tomas Hucl
Marja-Leena Kylanpää
Beat Künzli
Heiko Witt
Marko Lempinen
Alexander Schneider
Esko Kemppainen
Matthias Löhr
Stephan L Haas
Helmut Friess
Johann Ockenga
Jonas Rosendahl
Hans-Ulrich Schulz
Thomas Gress
Manfred V Singer
Roland H Pfützer
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine II (Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases), University of Heidelberg, Mannheim D-68167, Germany.
Source
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009 Sep;21(9):1032-5
Date
Sep-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Child
Child, Preschool
Disease Susceptibility
Female
Finland
Gene Deletion
Genotype
Germany
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Mutagenesis, Insertional - genetics
Pancreatitis - genetics - metabolism
Pancreatitis, Chronic - genetics - metabolism
Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A - genetics - metabolism
Polymorphism, Genetic
Young Adult
Abstract
Reduction in angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity has been shown to attenuate pancreatic stellate cell activation and pancreatic fibrosis and suggested as a potential treatment for chronic pancreatitis. The ACE gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in intron 16 accounts for nearly half the variation in serum ACE levels. This study determined the frequency of the I/D polymorphism in patients with acute and chronic pancreatitis.
In total, 887 patients (346 with alcoholic, 443 with nonalcoholic, and 98 with acute pancreatitis) were enrolled, and were compared with 1294 healthy controls. Genotyping of the I/D polymorphism was performed by PCR or melting curve analyses.
No significant differences were found in the prevalence of the ACE-deletion genotype frequencies when patients with alcoholic (27.5%), nonalcoholic (26.4%), and acute pancreatitis (32.7%) were compared with controls (26.9%). Likewise, allele frequencies of the ACE deletion polymorphism were not significantly different in patients with alcoholic (53.8%), nonalcoholic (50.6%), and acute pancreatitis (54.1%) and controls (52.7%).
The I/D polymorphism of the ACE gene was not found to be associated with acute and chronic pancreatitis.
PubMed ID
19307975 View in PubMed
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[Angiotensin converting enzyme, NO-synthase, and endothelin-1 genes and left ventricular hypertrophy in natives of Yakutia with hypertensive disease].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature176274
Source
Kardiologiia. 2005;45(1):41-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
2005
Author
L O Minushkina
I R Petrova
T A Romanova
V V Antipina
E R Makarova
D A Zateishikov
V V Nosikov
B A Sidorenko
Source
Kardiologiia. 2005;45(1):41-4
Date
2005
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alanine
Asparagine
Blood Flow Velocity
Endothelin-1 - genetics
Female
Gene Frequency
Genotype
Glycine
Humans
Hypertension - complications - enzymology - genetics - pathology - physiopathology
Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular - complications - enzymology - genetics - pathology - physiopathology
Lysine
Male
Middle Aged
Mitral Valve
Nitric Oxide Synthase - genetics
Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A - genetics
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Polymorphism, Genetic
Russia
Severity of Illness Index
Abstract
Association of polymorphic markers G7831A of ACE gene, Lys198Asn of endothelin-1 (EDN1) gene, and 4a/4b of NOS3 gene with characteristics of structure and function of the left ventricle was studied in 70 (31 men and 39 women) natives of Yakutia with hypertension. Mean age of patients was 48.3+/-0.74 years, duration of hypertension -- 12.4+/-0.99 years; 60 (85.7%), 7 (10%) and 3 (4.3%) patients had III, II and I degree of hypertension, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction was used for identification of alleles of polymorphic markers G7831A of ACE gene, Lys198Asn of EDN1 gene, and 4a/4b of NOS3 gene. Polymorphic marker G7831A of ACE gene was not associated with severity of hypertrophy of left ventricular myocardium as well as with state of systolic and diastolic left ventricular function. Patients with allele Asn of EDN1 gene in the genotype had significantly lower value of peak A integral of trans-mitral blood flow. Patients with allele 4a of NOS3 gene had thicker left ventricular walls, greater left ventricular myocardial mass and mass index.
PubMed ID
15699938 View in PubMed
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63 records – page 1 of 7.