An epidemic due to sulphonamide-resistant group A meningococci started in Finland in January 1973. By the end of 1974 the number of cases exceeded 1300. This report describes epidemiological and clinical observations in 370 patients treated in Helsinki 1973-1974. The incidence was about 65 per 100 000 per year in children under 7 years of age and about 10 per 100 000 in adults. More than one case occurred in 3.8% of the families and in 36% of the lodging-houses of the lowest social group. The fatality rate of patients treated in hospital was 4.1%. Persistent neurological damage was noticed in 4.6%.
During 1999 and 2000, an outbreak of syphilis occurred in Norway: 93 cases were reported to the National Institute of Public Health. This report summarizes a retrospective investigation of the medical records of 60 patients with primary, secondary and early latent syphilis treated during 1999-2000 at the Department of STD at the Ullevål University Hospital in Oslo. Five women and 55 men were treated, mean age 38.6 and 44.9 years, respectively. Of the 60 cases, 14 (23.3%) had primary, 39 (65.0) secondary and seven (11.7%) early latent syphilis. Men who have sex with men (MSM) constituted 78.2% (43/55) of the male patients. Transmission among MSM was related to casual sexual contacts in bathhouses in Oslo. Two cases occurred among men with previously diagnosed HIV infection. Two new cases of HIV were reported. Condom use was inconsistent, and seldom used for oral sex.
Surveys of the use of antimicrobial drugs on students during antimicrobial drugs on students during their first 15 months in medical or dental school indicate that they have been treated with these agents at least three times as frequently as seems reasonable, and that the tetracyclines, ampicillin, penicillin G and erythromycin are the chief drugs overused. Antimicrobiol therapy is frequently instituted for probable viral respiratory tract infections and without any attempt to establish a bacteriologic diagnosis. It is likely that anitmicrobiol agents are used more widely in treating the general public in Canada than in treating medical students. Improvements in the rational use of this important group of drugs could increase the quality and probably reduced the cost of medical care.
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All episodes of bacteraemia during a 15-year period (1981-1995) in the County of Northern Jutland, Denmark, were analysed with regard to antibiotic resistance. A total of 8840 isolates from 7938 episodes of bacteraemia was identified. Over time, no changes in bacterial aetiology were noted. Three isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were methicillin resistant (0.2%) and six were gentamicin resistant (0.4%). Among coagulase-negative staphylococci a 14% increase in resistance to penicillin was observed (95% confidence intervals, CI: 2-26%). Likewise, the frequency of resistance to methicillin, gentamicin and erythromycin increased, the corresponding figures being 38% (CI: 26-50%), 26% (CI: 14-38%) and 32% (CI: 16-50%), respectively, whereas a 14% decrease in resistance to streptomycin was recorded (CI: 4-24%). A 20% (CI: 2-37%) increase of coagulase-negative staphylococci resistant to three or more antibiotics was observed. The frequency of ampicillin resistance increased by 9% among Escherichia coli (CI: 4-13%) and by 10% (CI: 6-14%) in all Enterobacteriaceae. Among Enterobacteriaceae the level of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins, carbapenems, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones remained low (
The antibiotic sensitivity pattern of 3872 isolates of N. gonorrhoeae tested in Toronto from 1969 to 1973 is reviewed. An increase in resistance to both penicillin and tetracycline was noted up to 1971, but no further increase has occurred since then. Ninety-seven percent of 135 patients with "sensitive" strains (inhibited by 0.3 U/ml of penicillin and/or 0.5 mug/ml of tetracycline) were cured by either 8 g of tetracycline or 5,000,000 U of penicillin, whereas only 59% of 58 patients with "resistant" strains (requiring 1.0 U/ml of penicillin and/or 2.0 mug/ml of tetracycline for inhibition) were cured by the same dosage. Spectinomycin appears to be an acceptable alternative therapy. Maximum doses of the chosen drug are recommended in the hope of retarding further spread of more resistant organisms.
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One hundred and nine strains of Haemophilus influenzae recovered from clinical specimens were examined for antibiotic sensitivity pattern and capsular types. All strains from blood cultures, cerebrospinal fluid and a joint aspirate were type b whereas most of the isolates were acapsular when recovered from other specimens viz. wound secretions (67%), maxillary sinus (75%), lower resp tract (86%), nasal cavity (90%). Out of the 109 strains 88 (81%) were non-typable, and 3.6% were beta-lactamase-producing, two of which were type e, one was type b and one was acapsular. Three beta-lactamase-producing strains were isolated from specimens from the respiratory tract and one from blood cultures. Beta-lactamase-producing strains including one chloramphenicol-resistant strain harboured similar plasmids, as judged by agarose gel electrophoresis. The strains showed quite a uniform sensitivity to antibacterial agents with the exception of sulphonamides to which the capsular strains, particularly type b strains, were less susceptible.
BACKGROUND: Transmission of group B Steptococci from mother to child during delivery may cause serious disease in some children, but this can be prevented by use of antibiotic treatment during delivery. We have estimated how antibiotic treatment of all pregnant carriers of group B streptococcus during delivery would affect the total antibiotic use in Norway. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We estimated the use of penicillin G for treatment of 10 %, 20 % and 30 % of streptococcus carriers among those delivering. The Medical Birth Registry was used to obtain number of births and the Norwegian Drug Wholesalers Database to obtain total use of the various substances. RESULTS: If 30 % of delivering women were carriers of group B streptococcus and treated with penicillin G, the treatment would equal 2.8 % of today's total use of penicillin G and 0.09 % of the total use of the whole group of beta-lactam antibacterial agents, penicillins. INTERPRETATION: Prophylactic antibiotic treatment of pregnant carriers of group B streptococcus during delivery would not lead to a substantial change in the current antibiotic use. The possibility of increasing antibiotic resistance should not be a main argument against using antibiotics in prevention of group B streptococcus infection in newborns.