Penetrating junctional trauma is a leading cause of preventable death on the battlefield. Similarly challenging in civilian settings, exsanguination from the vessels of the abdomen, pelvis, and groin can occur in moments. Therefore, iliac artery or abdominal aortic compression has been recommended. Based on prior research, 120 lbs (54 kg) or 140 lbs (63 kg) of compression may be required to occlude these vessels, respectively. Whether most rescuers can generate this amount of compression is unknown.
To determine how many people in a convenience sample of 44 health care professionals can compress 120 lbs and 140 lbs.
This study simulated aortic and iliac artery compression. Consent was obtained from 44 clinicians (27 female; 17 male) from two large urban hospitals in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Participants compressed the abdominal model, which consisted of a medical scale and a 250 ml bag of saline, covered by a folded hospital blanket and placed on the ground. In random order, participants compressed a force they believed maintainable for 20 minutes ("maintainable effort") and then a maximum force they could maintain for two minutes ("maximum effort"). Compression was also performed with a knee. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate the data.
Compression was directly proportional to the clinician's body weight. Participants compressed a mean of 55% of their body weight with two hands at a maintainable effort, and 69% at a maximum effort. At maintainable manual effort, participants compressed a mean of 86 lbs (39 kg). Sixteen percent could compress over 120 lbs, but none over 140 lbs. At maximum effort, participants compressed a mean of 108 lbs (48 kg). Thirty-four percent could compress greater than 120 lbs and 11% could compress greater than 140 lbs. Using a single knee, participants compressed a mean weight of 80% of their body weight with no difference between maintainable and maximum effort.
This work suggests that bimanual compression following penetrating junctional trauma is feasible. However, it is difficult, and is not likely achievable or sustainable by a majority of rescuers. Manual compression (used to temporize until device application and operative rescue) requires a large body mass. To maintain 140 lbs of compression (for example during a lengthy transport), participants needed to weigh 255 lbs (115 kg). Alternatively, they needed to weigh 203 lbs (92 kg) to be successful during brief periods. Knee compression may be preferable, especially for lower-weight rescuers.
Alcohol and substance abuse in general is a risk factor for suicide, but very little is known about the acute effect in relation to suicide method. Based on information from 18,894 medico-legal death investigations, including toxicological findings and manner of death, did the present study investigate whether acute influence of alcohol, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), or central stimulants (amphetamine and cocaine) was related to the use of a violent suicide method, in comparison with the nonviolent method self-poisoning and alcohol-/illicit drug-negative suicide decedents. Multivariate analysis was conducted, and the results revealed that acute influence of THC was related to using the violent suicide method–– jumping from a height (RR 1.62; 95% CI 1.01–2.41). Alcohol intoxication was not related to any violent method, while the central stimulant-positive suicide decedent had a higher, albeit not significant, risk of several violent methods. The study contributes with elucidating suicide methods in relation to acute intoxication.
To investigate X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy in an unselected population, we performed a population based, cross-sectional prevalence study, supplemented by a retrospective study of deceased subjects. Sixty-three subjects (34 males, 29 females) belonging to 22 kindreds were included. Thirty-nine subjects (13 males, 26 females) were alive, and 24 (21 males, 3 females) were deceased on the prevalence day. The point prevalence of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy in Norway on July 1, 2011, was 0.8 per 100,000 inhabitants. The incidence at birth in the period 1956-1995 was 1.6 per 100,000 inhabitants. An age-dependent penetrance was observed among males and females, with more severe phenotypes appearing with rising age. Only 5% of deceased males had not developed cerebral leukodystrophy. No female older than 50 years was neurologically intact. Sixteen mutations in the ABCD1 gene were identified. De novo mutations were found in 19% of probands. The frequency of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy was lower in Norway than reported in the literature. A more severe natural course than previously reported was observed, indicating a need for better follow-up of both male and female patients. Given the high rate of de novo mutations, identification programs such as newborn screening may be required to offer timely treatment to all patients.
To ensure successful implementation of genetic screening and counselling according to patients best interests, the attitudes and motives of the public are important to consider. The aim of this study was to apply a theoretical framework in order to investigate which individual and disease characteristics might facilitate the uptake of genetic testing. A questionnaire using an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour was developed to assess the predictive value of affective and cognitive expected outcomes, subjective norms, perceived control and uncertainty avoidance on the intention to undergo genetic testing. In addition to these individual characteristics, the predictive power of two disease characteristics was investigated by systematically varying the diseases fatality and penetrance (i.e. the probability of getting ill in case one is a mutation carrier). This resulted in four versions of the questionnaire which was mailed to a random sample of 2400 Norwegians. Results showed genetic test interest to be quite high, and to vary depending on the characteristics of the disease, with participants preferring tests for highly penetrant diseases. The most important individual predictor was uncertainty avoidance.
Incidence rates of breast cancer among women with a BRCA1 mutation vary according to their reproductive histories and country of residence. To measure cancer incidence, it is best to follow-up cohort of healthy women prospectively. We followed up a cohort of 675 women with a BRCA1 mutation who did not have breast or ovarian cancer before inclusion and who had a normal clinical examination and mammography at first visit. After a mean of 7.1 years, 98 incident cases of breast cancer were recorded in the cohort. Annual cancer incidence rates were calculated, and based on these, a penetrance curve was constructed. The average annual cancer risk for the Norwegian women from age 25 to 70 was 2.0%. Founder mutations had lower incidence rate (1.7%) than less frequent mutations (2.5%) (p = 0.03). The peak incidence (3.1% annual risk) was observed in women from age 50 to 59. The age-specific annual incidence rates and penetrance estimate were compared with published figures for women from North America and from Poland. The risk of breast cancer to age 70 was estimated to be 61% for women from Norway, compared with 55% for women from Poland and 69% for women from North America.
To determine the proportion of enucleation procedures attributable to injuries from air guns in people aged 18 years or less and to identify the associated pathological findings.
Ophthalmic Pathology Registry, University of Ottawa, and affiliated Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario (Ottawa), Ottawa General Hospital and Ottawa Civic Hospital. In addition, information on air gun injuries from April 1990 to December 1993 was obtained from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP) database, with data from 10 pediatric and 5 general hospitals across Canada.
All patients aged 18 years or less who underwent enucleation between Jan. 1, 1974, and Dec. 31, 1993.
Eighty-five patients were identified as having undergone enucleation. Trauma accounted for 51 cases (60%), of which 13 (25%) were caused by air guns, the largest single cause of enucleation secondary to trauma. Overall, air gun injuries accounted for 15% of enucleation procedures, whereas retinoblastoma accounted for 21%. All air gun injuries were in boys (median age 14 years, range 9 to 16 years). Of the 13 eyes with air gun injuries 7 had ocular perforation and 6 had ocular penetration. In all cases the intraocular structures were severely disrupted. The CHIRPP database included 165 air gun injuries; 32 were to the eye or ocular adnexa, resulting in 26 hospital admissions.
Air guns were the largest single cause of enucleation secondary to trauma in our study. These guns are widely available in Canada and are unrestricted at muzzle velocities capable of causing death or serious injury, especially to the eye. We feel that air guns should be licensed only to people aged 16 to 18 years or older and that education in their use should be mandatory.
Comment In: Can J Ophthalmol. 1995 Jun;30(4):177-87585308
The optimal approach to airway management in penetrating neck injuries (PNIs) remains controversial. The primary objective of this study was to review the method of endotracheal intubation in PNI at a Canadian tertiary trauma centre. Secondarily, we sought to determine the incidence of PNI in our trauma population and to describe the epidemiologic elements of this population.
We conducted a review of patients with PNIs who were enrolled in the Nova Scotia Trauma Registry database. We included all penetrating injuries of the neck in patients > or = 16 years of age from April 1, 1994 to March 31 2005 with an Injury severity Score (ISS) > or = 9 or who underwent Trauma Team activation at our Tertiary Trauma Centre (regardless of ISS) and/or who were identified upon admission as a "major" trauma case. The variables of interest were patient age and sex, injury mechanism, injury location, place of intubation and method of intubation.
There were 19 people who met inclusion criteria and they were enrolled in our study. The injury mechanisms involved knife (n = 13) or gunshot (n = 5) wounds (one patient's injuries were categorized as "other"). Three patients (15.8%) were not intubated. The remaining 16 patients were intubated during prehospital care (n = 5), in the emergency department (n = 6) or in the operating room (n = 5). Of these, 8 patients (42.1%) underwent awake intubation and 8 (42.1%) underwent rapid sequence intubation.
There is clear variability of airway management in PNI. We believe that such patients represent a heterogeneous group where the attending physician must have a conservative yet varied approach to airway management based on the individual clinical scenario.
We hypothesized that the transcriptome of primary cultures of morphologically normal ovarian surface epithelial cells could be altered by the presence of a heterozygous BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. We aimed to discover early events associated with ovarian carcinogenesis, which could represent putative targets for preventive strategies of this silent killer tumor. We identified the first molecular signature associated with French Canadian BRCA1 or BRCA2 founder mutations in morphologically normal ovarian epithelial cells. We discovered that wild-type and mutated BRCA2 allelic transcripts were expressed not only in morphologically normal but also in tumor cells from BRCA2-8765delAG carriers. Further analysis of morphologically normal ovarian and tumor cells from BRCA1-4446C>T carriers lead to the same observation. Our data support the idea that one single hit in BRCA1 or BRCA2 is sufficient to alter the transcriptome of phenotypically normal ovarian epithelial cells. The highest level of BRCA2-mutated allele transcript expression was measured in cells originating from the most aggressive ovarian tumor. The penetrance of the mutation and the aggressiveness of the related tumor could depend on a dosage effect of the mutated allele transcript.
To study indications for penetrating keratoplasty (PK) at a single site. The trends in the causative organisms for infectious keratitis requiring surgery were also evaluated.
Retrospective observational study.
A total of 1181 eyes of 935 patients undergoing PK between January 2000 and December 2015 in Northern Alberta, Canada.
Indications for PK were evaluated over the 16-year study period, and the trends in these indications were compared over 5-year intervals. The microbiology of infectious keratitis cases requiring surgery was similarly evaluated.
The most common indications for PK from 2000 to 2015 were keratoconus (23%), re-graft (22%), and corneal scar (12%). There was a decline in the percent of total surgeries done for Fuchs' dystrophy (p = 1.1 × 10-3) and pseudophakic bullous keratopathy (p = 5.6 × 10-5), whereas a corresponding increase in keratoconus (p = 3.2 × 10-5), trauma (p = 2.1 × 10-3), and infectious keratitis cases (p = 0.010) was observed. The most common causes for infectious keratitis cases were viral (45%), bacterial (18%), parasitic (11%), and fungal (9%). There was a significant increase in the percent of infectious keratitis cases due to a viral etiology from 2005 to 2010 (p = 6.4 × 10-3).
The indications for PK are comparable with other centres in North America. Nearly half of all infectious keratitis cases requiring surgery are viral. The increase in viral cases requiring surgery may reflect improved diagnostics or recurrent cases.