Secondary prevention is an important component of a structured rehabilitation programme following a cardiac event. Comprehensive programmes have been developed in many European countries, the vast majority of which are hospital based. In Sweden, all patients with cardiac disease are also given the opportunity to participate in secondary prevention activities arranged by the National Association for Heart and Lung Patients [The Heart & Lung School (HL)]. The aim of this 3-year longitudinal study was to compare persons who attended the HL after a cardiac event and those who declined participation, with regard to health aspects, life situation, social network and support, clinical data, rehospitalisation and mortality. Totally 220 patients were included in the study. The patients were asked to fill in a questionnaire on four occasions, in addition to visiting a health care center for physical examination. After 3 years, 160 persons were still participating, 35 of whom attended the HL. The results show that persons who participated in the HL exercised more regularly, smoked less and had a denser network as well as more social support from nonfamily members than the comparison groups. This study contributes to increased knowledge among healthcare professionals, politicians and decision makers about peer support groups as a support strategy after a cardiac event.
Health prevention seeks to avoid the onset of disease or symptoms by eliminating or at least minimizing environmental factors that increase the risk of illness. This article describes Ability OnLine, an innovative program designed to reduce the isolation young people can experience in a healthcare facility or when confined to their home. The electronic bulletin board is a friendly platform for disabled and chronically ill children to easily communicate with their peers and adult and teen mentors.
The purpose of this study was first to compare 18-19-year-old male abstainers with alcohol consumers, and especially light consumers, regarding degree of sociability as indicated by their (in)security in the company of others, their number of close friends, intimate conversations with friends and their popularity in school. Secondly, we analysed the importance of antecedents to and covariates of abstinence. In addition, the significant antecedents and covariates gave us information as to abstinence patterns. The study was based on a survey of all Swedish males, 18-19 years old, conscripted for military service in 1969-70. Data had been collected by means of questionnaires and psychological interviews, giving measures of each respondent's social background, psychiatric/psychological and psychosomatic health status, substance use, deviant behaviour and degree of sociability. Poor sociability was more common among the abstainers than among all the other categories of drinkers, including the light consumers. The conscripts' social background, and especially their fathers' drinking habits, had the strongest effects in explaining abstinence. Sixty-two per cent of all abstainers had non-drinking fathers, compared to 28% of the light consumers. As to the majority of abstainers, this indicates a link between the social background of temperance and their own reported abstinence. Their poor sociability could be a consequence of abstaining at a young age when abstinence is uncommon. Those who abstained despite a drinking father showed a worsening psychological status, suggesting a link between psychologically impaired health, poor sociability and abstinence. Though the abstainers were the least sociable, the difference between the abstainers, the light consumers and the moderate consumers in other categories were generally small.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
The purpose of the study reported in this paper was to describe adherence to self-care, perceived difficulties and social support in a group of adult patients (n = 213) with insulin-treated diabetes from two outpatient clinics in Northern Finland. Data were collected by questionnaire. The instruments were developed to measure adherence to self-care, difficulties in self-care and social support. The response rate was 76%. One-way ANOVA, logistic regression analysis, contingency and Pearson's correlation coefficients were used in the statistical analysis. A fifth of the respondents were neglecting their self-care. The others undertook flexible, regimen-adherent or self-planned self-care. The subjects had no difficulties with insulin treatment, but had more problems with other aspects of self-care. Poor metabolic control, smoking and living alone predicted neglect of self-care, but if patients had support from family and friends, living alone was not a predictor of neglect of self-care. Those with poor metabolic control perceived themselves as getting peer support from other persons with diabetes.
The purpose of this qualitative study was to extend our understanding of how adolescents view nicotine addiction. This secondary analysis included 80 open-ended interviews with adolescents with a variety of smoking histories. The transcribed interviews were systematically analyzed to identify salient explanations of nicotine addiction. These explanations presuppose causal pathways of nicotine exposure leading to addiction and include repeated use, the brain and body "getting used to" nicotine, personal weakness, and family influences. A further explanation is that some youths pretend to be addicted to project a "cool" image. These explanations illustrate that some youths see themselves as passive players in the formation of nicotine addiction. The findings can be used in the development of programs to raise youth awareness about nicotine addiction.
This longitudinal study assessed the association between prior (preschool) and concurrent physical and relational aggression as they relate to Russian adolescents' disclosure and concealment patterns with their parents. In the initial preschool study, there were 106 boys and 106 girls (mean age?=?60.24 months, SD?=?7.81). Both peer nominations and teacher ratings of aggression were obtained for these children. Ten years later, the majority of these children (72.2%; n?=?153) completed a longitudinal follow-up battery of assessments. Included in these measures was a self-reported measure of aggression as well as an assessment of the extent to which these adolescents disclosed to and concealed information from their parents. Separate models were estimated by gender of child for the 153 children who participated in both Time 1 and Time 2 data collections. Preschool physical aggression proved an important longitudinal predictor of adolescent disclosure and concealment for girls. Concurrently, self-rated relational aggression was also significantly associated with concealment for both boys and girls.
The association between high sensation-seeking, close friends' drug use and low parental monitoring with ecstasy (MDMA) use in adolescence was examined in a sample of US household-dwelling adolescents aged 12-18 years (N=5049). We also tested whether associations were of stronger magnitude than associations between these correlates and marijuana or alcohol/tobacco use in adolescence. Data from Round 2 of the National Survey of Parents and Youth (NSPY) Restricted Use Files (RUF) was analyzed via Jackknife weighted multinomial logistic regression models. High sensation-seekers were more likely to be ecstasy, marijuana, and alcohol/tobacco users, respectively, as compared to low sensation-seekers. High sensation-seeking and close friends' drug use were more strongly associated with ecstasy as compared to marijuana and alcohol/tobacco use. Low parental monitoring was associated with marijuana use and alcohol/tobacco use and there was a trend for it to be associated with ecstasy use. Ecstasy use is strongly associated with peer drug use and more modestly associated with high sensation-seeking. School prevention programs should target high-sensation-seeking adolescents and also encourage them to affiliate with non-drug using peers.