Calcium urolithiasis is often associated with increased intestinal absorption and urine excretion of calcium, and has been suggested to result from increased vitamin D production. The role of the enzyme 1 alpha-hydroxylase, the rate-limiting step in active vitamin D production, was evaluated in 36 families, including 28 sibships with at least a pair of affected sibs, using qualitative and quantitative trait linkage analyses. Sibs with a verified calcium urolithiasis passage (n = 117) had higher 24-h calciuria (P = 0.03), oxaluria (P = 0.02), fasting and postcalcium loading urine calcium/creatinine (Ca/cr) ratios (P = 0.008 and P = 0.002, respectively), and serum 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D levels (P = 0.02) compared with nonstone-forming sibs (n = 120). Markers from a 9-centiMorgan interval encompassing the VDD1 locus on chromosome 12q13-14 (putative 1 alpha-hydroxylase) were analyzed in 28 sibships (146 sib pairs) of single and recurrent stone formers and in 14 sibships (65 sib pairs) with recurrent-only (> or = 3 episodes) stone-forming sibs. Two-point and multipoint analyses did not reveal excess in alleles shared among affected sibs at the VDD1 locus. Linkage of stone formation to the VDD1 locus could be excluded, respectively, with a lambda d of 2.0 (single and recurrent stone formers) and 3.25 (recurrent stone formers). Quantitative trait analyses revealed no evidence for linkage to 24-h calciuria and oxaluria, serum 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D levels, and Ca/cr ratios. This study shows absence of linkage of the putative 1 alpha-hydroxylase locus to calcium stone formation or to quantitative traits associated with idiopathic hypercalciuria. In addition, there is coaggregation of calciuric and oxaluric phenotypes with stone formation.
Over 45 years ago, Montreal Platelet Syndrome was first described as a rare inherited platelet disorder characterised by macrothrombocytopenia with spontaneous platelet clumping, abnormal platelet shape change upon stimulation and a defect in platelet calpain. This syndrome has now been reclassified as type 2B von Willebrand disease with the V1316M VWF mutation in the only kindred ever reported. We herein revisit the historical platelet characteristics originally described in Montreal Platelet Syndrome in light of the new diagnosis. This paper will review the 45-year saga of Montreal Platelet Syndrome, a story that highlights the value of revisiting a rare diagnosis to look for a more common explanation.
Haplotype analysis of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene was performed in Norwegian subjects heterozygous for familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA, using an exon 18 specific probe and the restriction enzyme NcoI, showed that two out of 57 unrelated FH subjects had an abnormal 3.6 kb band. Further analyses revealed that this abnormal band was due to a 9.6 kb deletion that included exons 16 and 17. The 5' deletion breakpoint was after 245 bp of intron 15, and the 3' deletion breakpoint was in exon 18 after nucleotide 3390 of cDNA. Thus, both the membrane-spanning and cytoplasmatic domains of the receptor had been deleted. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was developed to identify this deletion among other Norwegian FH subjects. As a result of this screening one additional subject was found out of 124 subjects screened. Thus, three out of 181 (1.7%) unrelated Norwegian FH subject possessed this deletion. The deletion was found on the same haplotype in the three unrelated subjects, suggesting a common mutagenic event. The deletion is identical to a deletion (FH-Helsinki) that is very common among Finnish FH subjects. However, it is not yet known whether the mutations evolved separately in the two countries.
A new restless legs syndrome locus on chromosome 14 recently has been reported in one family of Italian origin. Our study aimed to replicate this finding and determine the importance of this locus in the French Canadian population. Markers spanning the region were genotyped in 14 large families and linkage assessed using two-point and multipoint logarithm of odds scores. Possible linkage to this locus was found in one of our kindreds providing support for the existence of this locus and indicating that this locus may be responsible for a small fraction of French Canadian restless legs syndrome.
Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS, OMIM 251260) is a rare hereditary disease, characterized by immune deficiency, microcephaly, and an extremely high incidence of lymphoid tissue malignancies. The gene mutated in NBS, NBS1, was recently cloned from its location on chromosome 8q21. The encoded protein, nibrin (p95), together with hMre11 and hRad50, is involved in the double-strand DNA break repair system. We screened two Russian cohorts for the 657del5 NBS1 mutation and found no carriers in 548 controls and two carriers in 68 patients with lymphoid malignancies: one with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and one with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Several relatives of the second patient, who were carriers of the same mutation, had cancer (ALL, breast cancer, GI cancers). These preliminary data suggest that NBS1 mutation carriers can be predisposed to malignant disorders.
Uncertainty exists whether the 4154delA mutation of the BRCA1 gene detected in unrelated individuals from Latvia, Poland and Russia is a founder mutation with a common ancestral origin. To trace back this problem we analysed the mutation-associated haplotype of the BRCA1 intragenic SNPs as well as intragenic and nearby STR markers in mutation carriers from the aforementioned populations. The mutation-associated SNP alleles were found to be "T-A-A-A-A-G" for six intragenic SNPs of the BRCA1 gene (IVS8-58delT, 3232A/G, 3667A/G, IVS16-68A/G, IVS16-92A/G, IVS18+66G/A, respectively). The alleles 195, 154, 210 and 181 were found to be associated with the 4154delA mutation for STR markers D17S1325, D17S855, D17S1328 and D17S1320, correspondingly. Further analysis of markers in the 4154delA mutation carriers from all three populations allows us to assert that all analysed mutation carriers share a common ancestry.
To investigate, at a population level, whether a family history of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is independently related to increased aortic diameter and prevalence of AAA in men, and to elucidate whether the mean aortic diameter and the prevalence of AAA are different between participants with male and female relatives with AAA.
18,614 male participants screened for AAA in the VIVA-trial 2008-2011 with information on both family history of AAA and maximal aortic diameter.
Standardized ultrasound scan measurement of maximum antero-posterior aortic diameter. Family history obtained by questionnaire. Multivariate regression analysis was used to test for confounders: age, sex, smoking, comorbidity and medication.
From the screened cohort, 569 participants had at least one first degree relative diagnosed with AAA, and 38 had AAA. Participants with a family history of AAA (+FH) had a significantly larger mean maximum aortic diameter (20.50 mm) compared with participants without family history of AAA (-FH) (19.07 mm, p
A dermatoglyphic research on the absence of the palmar c-triradius was carried out in a Canadian family line originating from a French married couple who settled in the Quebec City area in 1649. Of the 51 individuals examined, 34 showed that c-triradius was missing on one or both palms. The study of the family tree and of the data confirms the hypothesis that an absent palmar c-triradius is an autosomal dominant trait transmitted by an heterozygous genotype with, in the present observation, an incidence of 66,6% and an estimated penetrance of 44,1%.
Existing methods for estimating historical effective population size from genetic data have been unable to accurately estimate effective population size during the most recent past. We present a non-parametric method for accurately estimating recent effective population size by using inferred long segments of identity by descent (IBD). We found that inferred segments of IBD contain information about effective population size from around 4 generations to around 50 generations ago for SNP array data and to over 200 generations ago for sequence data. In human populations that we examined, the estimates of effective size were approximately one-third of the census size. We estimate the effective population size of European-ancestry individuals in the UK four generations ago to be eight million and the effective population size of Finland four generations ago to be 0.7 million. Our method is implemented in the open-source IBDNe software package.
Cites: Genetics. 1971 Aug;68(4):581-975166069
Cites: Proc Biol Sci. 2013 Oct 7;280(1768):2013133923926150
Cites: Am J Hum Genet. 2013 Nov 7;93(5):840-5124207118