Rehabilitation of the majority of hearing handicapped in Sweden consists of hearing aid fitting, provision of technical devices and information during about four visits to a Hearing Centre. Generally there is no structured guidance of the hearing handicapped on how to proceed with the hearing aid at home between appointments. A programme of active fitting (AF) of hearing aids, with a task-oriented diary, 'Try Your Hearing Aid' as a basic part, was therefore developed. We conducted a series of studies from 1985 to 1988 with the aim of investigating the benefit and applicability of the programme. A total of 128 new hearing aid candidates participated in three studies at the Sahlgrens hospital and at four other hearing centres in smaller Swedish towns. In a controlled study the AF group was more positive to their hearing aids and to the fitting period after 10 months. They used their hearing aids more frequently and felt psychologically more secure with them. It was established that the AF programme could well be applied in the clinical routine for a majority of new hearing aid patients. Old age per se was not found to be a relevant exclusion criterion. The positive outcome of the AF programme has stimulated the Swedish Institute of the Handicapped to print 'Try Your Hearing Aid' with a manual, and to introduce it to all hearing centres in Sweden.
In a questionnaire study, 227 patients with atopic dermatitis and 215 with psoriasis, who had used alternative medicine, were asked to state their main reason for trying alternative medicine. The answers indicated that the absence of satisfactory effect of physician-provided therapy was the most decisive factor. Their main information sources on alternative therapies were persons without skin disease, and the mass media. The majority reported no improvement, or even aggravation of their skin disease, as a result of alternative treatments (except for diet changes). These findings emphasize the need for documentation of effect of alternative medicine, as well as for further research and education efforts in order to improve therapy for atopic dermatitis and psoriasis.
The integration of primary oral health care has a pivotal role in improving oral health outcomes and providing accessible and affordable health care. This article contributes to the deep understanding of the cultural aspects of the integration of oral health into primary health care at an Indigenous health organization. Proceeding from a collaborative and interdisciplinary research project evaluating the integration of oral health care within primary care in Eeyou Istchee, this research is based on group discussions (6) and individual interviews (36) with 74 participants (care providers, administrators, and patients) held in four Eastern James Bay Cree communities. This study anthropologically explored participants' perceptions about primary health care conceptualizations, culturally based approaches, and experiences of oral care services at this organization using a "two-eyed seeing" Indigenous framework. The study identified three key factors related to the integration of primary oral health care: Cree perception of primary health and oral health care, cultural safety, and health provider-patient communication and the role of silence. Study findings reflected a dichotomy of perception of primary health care and the relevant units of care between the Cree structural and cultural perspective and the non-Cree professional perspective. The Cree people perceived "household" as a unit of care in comparison to non-Cree who viewed "health care services" as units of care. Our results also underline the role of cultural safety agents to address the needs for cultural competence and the role of silence as implicit cultural protocol. Our anthropological analysis illustrates the potential for increasing the level of appreciation for both users and workers in oral care in the future by ameliorating communication skills and intercultural knowledge.