We compared health status, access to care, and utilization of medical services in the United States and Canada and compared disparities according to race, income, and immigrant status.
We analyzed population-based data on 3505 Canadian and 5183 US adults from the Joint Canada/US Survey of Health. Controlling for gender, age, income, race, and immigrant status, we used logistic regression to analyze country as a predictor of access to care, quality of care, and satisfaction with care and as a predictor of disparities in these measures.
In multivariate analyses, US respondents (compared with Canadians) were less likely to have a regular doctor, more likely to have unmet health needs, and more likely to forgo needed medicines. Disparities on the basis of race, income, and immigrant status were present in both countries but were more extreme in the United States.
United States residents are less able to access care than are Canadians. Universal coverage appears to reduce most disparities in access to care.
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Lack of access to care, funding limitations, cultural, and social barriers are challenges specific to tribal communities that have led to adverse cancer outcomes among American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN). While the cancer navigator model has been shown to be effective in other underserved communities, it has not been widely implemented in Indian Country. We conducted in-depth interviews with 40 AI/AN patients at tribal clinics in Idaho and Oregon. We developed the survey instrument in partnership with community members to ensure a culturally appropriate semi-structured questionnaire. Questions explored barriers to accessing care, perceptions of the navigator program, satisfaction, and recommendations. AI/AN cancer patients reported physical, emotional, financial, and transportation barriers to care, but most did not feel there were any cultural barriers to receiving care. Navigator services most commonly used included decision making, referrals, transportation, scheduling appointments, and communication. Satisfaction with the program was high. Our study provides a template to develop a culturally appropriate survey instrument for use with an AI/AN population, which could be adapted for use with other indigenous patient populations. Although our sample was small, our qualitative analysis facilitated a deeper understanding of the barriers faced by this population and how a navigator program may best address them. The results reveal the strengths and weakness of this program, and provide baseline patient satisfaction numbers which will allow future patient navigator programs to better create evaluation benchmarks.
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The purpose of this study was to identify and describe critical elements of women-centered care within the context of providing cervical screening to three ethnocultural groups in Canada: Asian, South Asian and First Nations.
Data for this collective case study included open-ended interviews with purposive samples of women and key informants from each target group. Following thematic analysis, cross-case analysis was completed by comparing and contrasting issues and contextual factors influencing women's and providers' experiences.
Cervical screening services for each group were shaped by attention to ethnocultural values, women's desire for thorough explanations, and the importance of a comfortable setting. While participation rates varied across clinics, women were positive about their experiences in obtaining cervical screening. Some women's expectations that they could address a range of health concerns with female health providers at the clinics were stymied by structural barriers that prevented staff from addressing issues beyond those directly related to cervical screening. Cross-case analysis revealed three key elements of women-centered care: respectful and culturally appropriate interactions between women and health providers, the importance of providing acceptable alternatives for women, and the need for comprehensive health services.
While the establishment of Pap test clinics for ethnocultural groups has the potential to enhance participation in cervical screening, changes in health policy and the structure of health services are required for existing programs to fully implement the elements of women-centered health care identified in this study. Other models of providing health care to women in ethnocultural groups, including the use of clinics staffed by nurse practitioners, should be evaluated.
Cree women from the Moose Factory zone were asked about their views on evacuation for childbirth. Significant concerns cited were separation from children, loneliness, boredom, and the hospital accommodations. Shopping, the medical staff and equipment, and the opportunity to visit relatives were considered positive factors. Suggested improvements were to bring along family members, to provide alternative accommodation, and to have activities to occupy the time.
Patient satisfaction has become an important indicator of primary care and healthcare system performance. Ethnic disparities in patient satisfaction and compliance with physician care have been studied in several countries. However, this issue has not received significant attention in Canada. The unique characteristics of the Canadian healthcare system and ethnic population make it worthwhile to examine this issue in this population. Therefore, we conducted a survey among Chinese and Whites in a Canadian city to determine their reported satisfaction, and perceptions of physicians.
The survey was conducted in English, Mandarin and Cantonese in 2005 among Chinese and White Canadians, 18 years of age or older, who had visited at least one physician in Canada.
We analyzed 746 Chinese and 711 Whites in the general practitioner (GP) visit group and 485 Chinese and 637 Whites in the specialist visit group. A lower proportion of Chinese compared to Whites reported that they were very satisfied or satisfied with GP (73.7% vs. 92.8%) and specialist care (75.5% vs. 85.6%) and the differences between the two groups remained after adjustment for demographic variables and chronic conditions (risk adjusted OR: 0.70, 95%CI: 0.42-1.18 for the GP visit group and OR: 0.77, 95%CI: 0.48-1.23 for the specialist visit group). A similar proportion of Chinese and Whites reported that they always followed a physician's advice (59.4% vs. 59.6% for the GP visit group and 67.2% vs. 62.8% for the specialist visit group). Non-English speaking Chinese and recent arrivals in Canada were less likely to be satisfied with GPs than Chinese born in Canada [risk adjusted OR: 0.5, 95%CI: 0.3-0.9, 0.2 and 0.1-0.7, respectively].
Chinese Canadians reported lower satisfaction with physicians and perceived physicians slightly more negatively than White Canadians. Particularly, Chinese with limited English and short length of stay in Canada were less satisfied than Canadian born Chinese.
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AIMS: This study examined (1) whether patient and caregiver satisfaction in the emergency room (ER) varies according to patient origin, and (2) whether relevance of visit can explain any variation. METHODS: Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey of walk-in patients and their caregivers at four ERs in Copenhagen. The patient questionnaire was available in nine languages, and addressed patient satisfaction. The caregiver questionnaire addressed caregiver satisfaction and relevance of the patient contact in the ER. A total of 3,809 patients and 3,905 caregivers responded. The response rate among patients was 54%. Only data with both patient and caregiver responses and with patient country of birth were included in the analyses (n=3,426). The effect of patient origin was examined using bivariate, stratified analyses and tested for independence. RESULTS: Patients and caregivers had lower satisfaction rates when patients were of Middle Eastern compared with Danish origin. Satisfaction of both groups was associated with the relevance of the visit as assessed by the caregiver. Visits by patients of Middle Eastern origin were less often assessed as being relevant, but caregivers were less satisfied with visits by these patients even after controlling for relevance. Differences in patient satisfaction by patient origin were no longer significant when stratifying by relevance. CONCLUSIONS: Patient and caregiver satisfaction among patients of foreign origin can be improved by lowering the number of irrelevant visits among patients of foreign origin, e.g. by improving access to general practitioners. Training of caregivers in dealing with patients of different origins might reduce differences in caregiver satisfaction according to patient origin.
The purpose of this single-cohort study was to implement and evaluate a programme that trains peers to deliver a diabetes self-management support programme for South-Asian adults with Type 2 diabetes and to assess the perceived efficacy of and satisfaction with this programme.
We recruited eight South-Asian adults who completed a 20-h peer-leader training programme conducted over five sessions (4 h per session). The programme used multiple instructional methods (quizzes, group brainstorming, skill building, group sharing, role-play and facilitation simulation) and provided communication, facilitation, and behaviour change skills training. To graduate, participants were required to achieve the pre-established competency criteria in four training domains: active listening, empowerment-based facilitation, five-step behavioural goal-setting, and self-efficacy. Participants were given three attempts to pass each competency domain.
On the first attempt six (75%), eight (100%), five (63%) and five (63%) participants passed active listening, empowerment-based facilitation, five-step behavioural goal-setting, and self-efficacy, respectively. Those participants who did not pass a competency domain on the first attempt were successful in passing on the second attempt. As a result, all eight participants graduated from the training programme and became peer leaders. Satisfaction ratings for programme length, balance between content and skills development, and preparation for leading support activities were uniformly high. Ratings for the instructional methods ranged between effective and very effective.
Findings suggest it is feasible to train and graduate peer leaders with the necessary skills to facilitate a diabetes self-management support intervention.
South Asian Canadians experience disproportionately high rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The goal of this qualitative study was to determine the feasibility of implementing a sustainable, culturally adapted, community-based CVD risk factor screening program for this population.
South Asians (= 45 years) in Calgary, Alberta underwent opportunistic cardiovascular risk factor screening by lay trained volunteers at local religious facilities. Those with elevated blood pressure (BP) or = 1 risk factor underwent point of care cholesterol testing, 10-year CVD risk calculation, counseling, and referral to family physicians and local culturally tailored chronic disease management (CDM) programs. Participants were invited for re-screening and were surveyed about health system follow-up, satisfaction with the program and suggestions for improvement. Changes in risk factors from baseline were estimated using McNemar's test (proportions) and paired t-tests (continuous measures).
Baseline assessment was completed for 238 participants (median age 64 years, 51% female). Mean TC, HDL and TC/HDL were 5.41 mmol/L, 1.12 mmol/L and 4.7, respectively. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures (mmHg) were 129 and 75 respectively. Blood pressure and TC/HDL ratios exceeded recommended targets in 36% and 58%, respectively, and 76% were at high risk for CVD. Ninety-nine participants (47% female) attended re-screening. 82% had accessed health care providers, 22% reported medication changes and 3.5% had attended the CDM programs. While BP remained unchanged, TC and TC/HDL decreased and HDL increased significantly (mean differences: -0.52 mmol/L, -1.04 and +0.07 mmol/L, respectively). Participants were very satisfied (80%) or satisfied (20%) with the project. Participants suggested screening sessions and CDM programs be more accessible by: delivering evening or weekends programs at more sites, providing transportation, offering multilingual programs/translation assistance, reducing screening wait times and increasing numbers of project staff.
SA-CHAMP demonstrated the feasibility and value of implementing a lay volunteer-led, culturally adapted, sustainable community-based CVD risk factor screening program in South Asian places of worship in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Subsequent screening and CDM programs were refined based on the learnings from this study. Further research is needed to determine physician and patient factors associated with uptake of and adherence to risk reduction strategies.
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BACKGROUND: Labrador's Innu and Inuit live in nine small, isolated villages, and must travel to the urban centres of Goose Bay, Labrador and/or St. John's, Newfoundland for most health services. This study responds to anecdotal evidence of Aboriginal dissatisfaction with these services from the St. John's Native Friendship Centre Association (SJNFCA); it describes Aboriginal experiences and identifies relevant needs. METHODS: The study consisted of qualitative interviews (N = 143), conducted by trained local researchers, and nine focus groups. The interviews were narrative-based, appropriate to the Aboriginal culture of participants. Participants were recruited from the client list of the SJNFCA. FINDINGS: Almost all study participants experience significant difficulties including profound disorientation, language and communication difficulties, inadequate accommodations, and altered diets. Cross-cultural relations are particularly problematic for the Innu. CONCLUSIONS: These findings, and 19 recommendations made to the provincial government (8 main recommendations appear in Table II), could lead to improved services for Innu and Inuit using urban health services. Workshops in development could mean more awareness among health care practitioners.
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore arthritis management strategies among Chinese immigrants in Calgary, Canada, and to assess factors, that impact on these strategies. Purposive sampling was used to select 19 Chinese immigrants living with arthritis. Data were collected by means of in-depth interviews. The interview data were analyzed according to the following steps: (1). transcribing interview materials, (2). developing codes, categories and themes, (3). theoretical coding, and (4). laying out the theoretical framework. The results of this study describe factors, that impacted on illness management strategies. These include arthritic symptoms, beliefs about arthritis, beliefs about Western medicine based on treatment experience, beliefs about Chinese medicine, perceived barriers to using Chinese or Western medicine and social support. The emerging process of illness management shows that immigrants usually started using self-care remedies, followed by consulting Western physicians, consulting Chinese healers, and then returning to Western medicine. The results illustrate that disease management strategies among Chinese immigrants are impacted by disease, personal and cultural factors. These factors suggest helpful directions to providing culturally sensitive care, which can lead to greater satisfaction and well being for Chinese immigrants with arthritis.