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Accounting for expected attrition in the planning of community intervention trials.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166860
Source
Stat Med. 2007 Jun 15;26(13):2615-28
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-15-2007
Author
Monica Taljaard
Allan Donner
Neil Klar
Author Affiliation
Ottawa Health Research Institute, Clinical Epidemiology Program, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Canada. mtaljaard@ohri.ca
Source
Stat Med. 2007 Jun 15;26(13):2615-28
Date
Jun-15-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Cluster analysis
Consumer Participation
Humans
Models, Statistical
Patient Dropouts - statistics & numerical data
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic - statistics & numerical data
Research Design
Sample Size
Abstract
Trials in which intact communities are the units of randomization are increasingly being used to evaluate interventions which are more naturally administered at the community level, or when there is a substantial risk of treatment contamination. In this article we focus on the planning of community intervention trials in which k communities (for example, medical practices, worksites, or villages) are to be randomly allocated to each of an intervention and a control group, and fixed cohorts of m individuals enrolled in each community prior to randomization. Formulas to determine k or m may be obtained by adjusting standard sample size formulas to account for the intracluster correlation coefficient rho. In the presence of individual-level attrition however, observed cohort sizes are likely to vary. We show that conventional approaches of accounting for potential attrition, such as dividing standard sample size formulas by the anticipated follow-up rate pi or using the average anticipated cohort size m pi, may, respectively, overestimate or underestimate the required sample size when cluster follow-up rates are highly variable, and m or rho are large. We present new sample size estimation formulas for the comparison of two means or two proportions, which appropriately account for variation among cluster follow-up rates. These formulas are derived by specifying a model for the binary missingness indicators under the population-averaged approach, assuming an exchangeable intracluster correlation coefficient, denoted by tau. To aid in the planning of future trials, we recommend that estimates for tau be reported in published community intervention trials.
PubMed ID
17068842 View in PubMed
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Adolescents with high periodontal risk in Public Dental Service.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature117774
Source
Swed Dent J. 2013;37(4):161-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Leif Jansson
Lottie Adler
Catarina Jonés
Source
Swed Dent J. 2013;37(4):161-9
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Aggressive Periodontitis - etiology - therapy
Chronic Periodontitis - etiology - therapy
Dental Caries - etiology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Patient Compliance - statistics & numerical data
Patient Dropouts - statistics & numerical data
Periodontal Attachment Loss - etiology - therapy
Periodontal Diseases - etiology - therapy
Periodontal Index
Periodontal Pocket - etiology - therapy
Referral and Consultation - statistics & numerical data
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Smoking
Sweden
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of adolescents with high periodontal risk and to identify factors with influence on the decision to refer a patient to a specialist clinic of Periodontology, on compliance rate and on treatment outcome. The investigation was conducted as a retrospective study on adolescents at age 13-17. In total, clinical examinations and risk evaluations according to caries- and periodontal risk were performed on 50347 adolescents in general dentistry at ages 13, 15 and 17 in 2007. Individuals with a high periodontal risk were included in the present investigation. A high periodontal risk was defined as presence of sites with periodontal pocket depths >6mm and loss of periodontal tissue support. Multiple logistic regression analyses were adopted to calculate the influence of the potential predictors on the investigated dependent variables. In total, 0.5% of the adolescents were found to have high periodontal risk. The diagnosis local periodontitis and the number of periodontal pockets with probing depths >6 mm were positively and significantly correlated to referral to a periodontist. Eighteen percent dropped out before the treatment was completed. Smokers had a significantly lower compliance than non-smokers. The success rate was significantly lower for individuals with many periodontal pockets and for those with the diagnosis local periodontitis. The prevalence of adolescents classified as having high periodontal risk was low. A large frequency of subjects dropped out before the periodontal treatment was completed, especially at the specialist clinics.
PubMed ID
24620506 View in PubMed
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Antidepressant treatment of premature ejaculation: discontinuation rates and prevalence of side effects for dapoxetine and paroxetine in a naturalistic setting.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268451
Source
Int J Impot Res. 2015 Mar-Apr;27(2):75-80
Publication Type
Article
Author
P. Jern
A. Johansson
J. Piha
L. Westberg
P. Santtila
Source
Int J Impot Res. 2015 Mar-Apr;27(2):75-80
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Antidepressive Agents - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Benzylamines - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Finland
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Naphthalenes - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Paroxetine - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Patient Dropouts - statistics & numerical data
Premature Ejaculation - drug therapy
Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Surveys and Questionnaires
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
The present study aimed to investigate prevalence of and reasons for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) discontinuation, and compare the two most common SSRIs used in premature ejaculation (PE) treatment, in naturalistic settings (that is, outside clinical trials). The sample consisted of 132 Finnish men with a mean age of 42.5 years (s.d. = 10.6) who had received medical treatment for lifelong PE. The men were enlisted for the study after identifying individuals from the third author's (a physician specializing in sexual medicine) patient registry. Participants responded to a secure, online questionnaire. PE treatment-related side effects of, and discontinuation rates for, different SSRIs were retrospectively self-reported. Treatment efficacy and happiness with treatment were retrospectively self-assessed. Discontinuation rates were uniformly high, ranging from 28.8 to 70.6% between different SSRIs. Dapoxetine was associated with the highest dropout rates (70.6%), and paroxetine the lowest, discontinuation rates. Limited efficacy and side effects were the most common reasons for discontinuation. Paroxetine was more effective and better tolerated than dapoxetine. A considerable number of patients chose to spontaneously discontinue treatment, especially so in the case of dapoxetine, corroborating recent studies conducted in naturalistic settings. Further research efforts are necessary to develop new and improve existing PE treatment alternatives.
PubMed ID
25410962 View in PubMed
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Antihypertensive medication use, adherence, stops, and starts in Canadians with hypertension.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature125049
Source
Can J Cardiol. 2012 May;28(3):383-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2012
Author
Marianne E Gee
Norm R C Campbell
Femida Gwadry-Sridhar
Robert P Nolan
Janusz Kaczorowski
Asako Bienek
Cynthia Robitaille
Michel Joffres
Sulan Dai
Robin L Walker
Author Affiliation
Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Can J Cardiol. 2012 May;28(3):383-9
Date
May-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Antihypertensive Agents - administration & dosage
Attitude to Health
Blood Pressure Determination - methods
Canada
Confidence Intervals
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Drug Administration Schedule
Educational Status
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Health Surveys
Humans
Hypertension - diagnosis - drug therapy - epidemiology
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Patient Compliance - statistics & numerical data
Patient Dropouts - statistics & numerical data
Risk assessment
Rural Population
Severity of Illness Index
Sex Factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Treatment Outcome
Urban Population
Young Adult
Abstract
Some of the greatest barriers to achieving blood pressure control are perceived to be failure to prescribe antihypertensive medication and lack of adherence to medication prescriptions.
Self-reported data from 6017 Canadians with diagnosed hypertension who responded to the 2008 Canadian Community Health Survey and the 2009 Survey on Living with Chronic Diseases in Canada were examined.
The majority (82%) of individuals with diagnosed hypertension reported using antihypertensive medications. The main reasons for not taking medications were either that they were not prescribed (42%) or that blood pressure had been controlled without medications (45%). Of those not taking antihypertensive medications in 2008 (n = 963), 18% had started antihypertensive medications by 2009, and of those initially taking medications (n = 5058), 5% had stopped. Of those taking medications in 2009, 89% indicated they took the medication as prescribed, and 10% indicated they occasionally missed a dose. Participants who were recently diagnosed, not measuring blood pressure at home, not having a plan to control blood pressure, or not receiving instructions on how to take medications were less likely to be taking antihypertensive medications; similar factors tended to be associated with stopping antihypertensive medication use.
Compatible with high rates of hypertension control, most Canadians diagnosed with hypertension take antihypertensive medications and report adherence. Widespread implementation of self-management strategies for blood pressure control and standardized instructions on antihypertensive medication may further optimize drug treatment.
PubMed ID
22522073 View in PubMed
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Characteristics of hypertensive Canadians not receiving drug therapy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature156765
Source
Can J Cardiol. 2008 Jun;24(6):485-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2008
Author
Norman R C Campbell
Lawrence So
Ernest Amankwah
Hude Quan
Colleen Maxwell
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta.
Source
Can J Cardiol. 2008 Jun;24(6):485-90
Date
Jun-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Antihypertensive Agents - therapeutic use
Attitude to Health
Awareness
Canada - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Health Education - organization & administration
Humans
Hypertension - drug therapy - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Patient Dropouts - statistics & numerical data
Population Surveillance - methods
Prevalence
Prognosis
Questionnaires
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Abstract
Many Canadians known to have hypertension remain untreated. To aid in the development of specific programs to improve hypertension management, the present report characterizes Canadians who indicated that they had hypertension but were not taking antihypertensive drug therapy.
The 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey (cycle 3.1) was used to estimate the proportion of Canadians 20 years of age and older who reported having high blood pressure or ever being diagnosed with high blood pressure. Sociodemographic characteristics, reported health, lifestyle factors and health care resource use of those who reported taking or not taking high blood pressure medication in the previous month were described and compared.
Over one-half of hypertensive respondents 20 to 39 years of age reported no antihypertensive treatment compared with 17% and 5% among those 40 to 59 years and 60 years of age and older, respectively. In most age groups, several factors were associated with the absence of pharmacotherapy (eg, male sex, fewer health care professional consultations, perceived excellent health status and most markers of lower cardiovascular risk, with the exception of daily smoking). The proportion of young hypertensive Canadians not receiving pharmacotherapy remained consistent, regardless of the presence of cardiovascular risk factors.
Many hypertensive Canadians, particularly those who are younger than 60 years of age, are not taking antihypertensive drug therapy despite having one or more cardiovascular risks. The increased risk of no drug therapy among smokers warrants special attention.
Notes
Cites: Hypertension. 2007 Jan;49(1):69-7517159087
Cites: J Hum Hypertens. 2006 Nov;20(11):874-8116929341
Cites: Can J Cardiol. 2007 May 15;23(7):539-5017534460
Cites: Can J Cardiol. 2007 May 15;23(7):551-517534461
Cites: Can J Cardiol. 2007 May 15;23(7):561-517534463
Cites: BMJ. 2007 Oct 27;335(7625):87517954519
Cites: Can J Cardiol. 2008 Mar;24(3):199-20418340389
Cites: JAMA. 2002 Feb 27;287(8):1003-1011866648
Cites: JAMA. 2003 May 14;289(18):2363-912746359
Cites: J Hypertens. 2003 Aug;21(8):1591-712872055
Cites: J Hypertens. 2004 Jan;22(1):11-915106785
Cites: CMAJ. 1992 Jun 1;146(11):1997-20051596849
Cites: Circulation. 1995 Jul 1;92(1):2-47788911
Cites: Am J Hypertens. 1997 Oct;10(10 Pt 1):1097-1029370379
Cites: CMAJ. 1999 Sep 21;161(6):699-70410513276
Cites: Lancet. 2005 Jan 15-21;365(9455):217-2315652604
Cites: Hypertension. 2005 Jun;45(6):1113-815851629
Cites: Hypertension. 2006 Jan;47(1):22-816344380
Cites: Am J Hypertens. 2006 Feb;19(2):161-916448886
Cites: J Hypertens. 2006 Jun;24(6):1187-9216685220
Cites: Hypertension. 2006 Nov;48(5):853-6016982958
Cites: Arch Intern Med. 2007 Jan 22;167(2):141-717242314
PubMed ID
18548146 View in PubMed
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Cohort profile: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature80984
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2006 Oct;35(5):1146-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2006

Comparing continuation rates and side effects of hormonal contraceptives in East Asian and Caucasian women after abortion.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature154651
Source
Contraception. 2008 Nov;78(5):405-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2008
Author
Ellen R Wiebe
Konia Trouton
Zhe Amy Fang
Author Affiliation
Department of Family Practice, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V5Z 1H9. ellenwiebe@yahoo.ca
Source
Contraception. 2008 Nov;78(5):405-8
Date
Nov-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abortion, Induced
Adult
Asian Continental Ancestry Group
Canada
Cohort Studies
Contraception - adverse effects - utilization
Contraceptive Agents - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Contraceptives, Postcoital, Hormonal - adverse effects - therapeutic use
European Continental Ancestry Group
Female
Humans
Patient Dropouts - statistics & numerical data
Pregnancy
Questionnaires
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine whether East Asian women had more side effects and a higher discontinuation rate than Caucasian women when choosing to use hormonal contraceptives.
This was an observational cohort study of usual care using questionnaires for 2 months after being given hormonal contraceptives following an abortion in Vancouver, Canada.
In the first month, 73 (64.4%) of the 110 East Asian and 86 (80.4%) of the 107 Caucasian women took any of the sample provided (p=.020). In the second month, 52 (47.3%) of the East Asian and 62 (57%) of the Caucasian women used the prescription to buy and take their hormonal contraception (p=.12). Total side effects were similar, but there was more nausea in the East Asian women (23.3% vs. 8.1%) (p=.03) and more acne in the Caucasian women (8.2% vs. 20.9%) (p=.05).
There may be both physiological and cultural differences leading East Asian women to use less hormonal contraception.
PubMed ID
18929738 View in PubMed
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Comparison of stayers, dropouts, and newcomers in a longitudinal population study of asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness: introduction of bias?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15933
Source
J Asthma. 1995;32(4):295-300
Publication Type
Article
Date
1995
Author
C S Ulrik
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, National University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
J Asthma. 1995;32(4):295-300
Date
1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Asthma - epidemiology - physiopathology
Bias (epidemiology)
Bronchial Hyperreactivity - epidemiology - physiopathology
Bronchial Provocation Tests
Child
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Forced expiratory volume
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Patient Dropouts - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Sampling Studies
Skin Tests
Smoking - epidemiology
Vital Capacity
Abstract
A random sample of children and adolescents from the general population in Copenhagen, Denmark, has been examined twice (6 years apart) with respect to asthma, allergy, and nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness. To investigate potential bias resulting from loss of baseline subjects at follow-up (dropout bias) and bias resulting from subjects entering the study at the follow-up stage (newcomer bias), stayers (subjects who participated in both examinations) were compared to dropouts and newcomers, respectively. The sample consisted of 983 subjects (aged 7-17 years at the time of the baseline study), of whom 408 (199 boys) participated in both examinations (stayers), 119 (62 boys) in the baseline study only (dropouts), and 257 (124 boys in the follow-up study only (newcomers). Thus, a total of 784 subjects (80% of the sample) were examined either once or twice. At baseline dropouts did not differ from stayers with respect to anthropometric data, smoking habits, pulmonary function, or prevalence of positive skin prick tests, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, asthma, and allergic diseases. Likewise, these variables for newcomers were not different from those of the stayers apart from a significantly higher smoking rate in newcomers (45% vs. 32%, p = 0.003). Based on these findings and the high overall response rate, it seems reasonable to assume that the group of stayers is representative of the whole sample, apart from an underestimation of the number of smokers and, therefore, an underestimation of the risks associated with smoking.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PubMed ID
7629005 View in PubMed
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Contacting dropouts from type 2 diabetes care in public primary health care: description of the patient population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282128
Source
Scand J Prim Health Care. 2016 Sep;34(3):267-73
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2016
Author
Timo Kauppila
Merja K Laine
Mikko Honkasalo
Marko Raina
Johan G Eriksson
Source
Scand J Prim Health Care. 2016 Sep;34(3):267-73
Date
Sep-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Analysis of Variance
Comorbidity
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - blood - therapy
Female
Finland
Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated - analysis
Humans
Hypoglycemic agents - therapeutic use
Insulin - therapeutic use
Male
Medical Records
Middle Aged
Patient Dropouts - statistics & numerical data
Primary Health Care
Sex Distribution
Young Adult
Abstract
To characterize dropouts from type-2 diabetes (T2D) care in communal primary health care.
An observational study.
In a Finnish city, patients with T2D who had not contacted the public primary health care system during the past 12 months were identified with a computer based search and contacted by a trained diabetes nurse.
Dropouts from T2D treatment.
Demographic factors, laboratory parameters, examinations, medications, and comorbidities.
Of the patients with T2D, 10% (n?=?356) were dropouts and 60% of them were men. Median HbA1c was 6.5 (QR for 25% and 75%: 6.0, 7.7) %, (45 [42,61] mmol/mol). Of the dropouts, 14% had HbA1c?=?9.0% (75?mmol/mol), and these patients were younger than the other dropouts (mean age 54.4 [SD 10.8] years vs. 60.6 [9.4] years, p? 9% (75?mmol/mol) and they were more often younger than the other dropouts.
Notes
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Cites: Int J Endocrinol. 2014;2014:13170925328520
Cites: Diabetes Care. 1996 May;19(5):494-78732715
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Cites: Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2013 Mar;23(3):235-4122397873
Cites: N Engl J Med. 2008 Feb 7;358(6):580-9118256393
Cites: BMC Health Serv Res. 2012 Jan 10;12:822233930
Cites: BMC Med. 2012 Oct 29;10:12823106808
Cites: Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2014 Aug;105(2):176-8424947442
Cites: Diabetes Care. 1992 Nov;15(11):1477-831468274
Cites: Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2005 Dec;70(3):263-915890427
Cites: Diabetes Care. 2015 Jan;38 Suppl:S425537706
Cites: Diabetes Care. 2000 Dec;23(12):1791-311128354
Cites: Diabetes. 1988 Apr;37(4):405-123378684
Cites: Womens Health Issues. 2015 Jan-Feb;25(1):6-1225442365
Cites: Womens Health Issues. 2014 Jan-Feb;24(1):e61-824439948
PubMed ID
27404014 View in PubMed
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78 records – page 1 of 8.