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Ambient concentrations of airborne endotoxin in two cities in the interior of British Columbia, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101885
Source
J Environ Monit. 2011 Mar;13(3):631-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2011
Author
Janice Allen
Karen Bartlett
Mark Graham
Peter Jackson
Author Affiliation
Natural Resources & Environmental Studies Institute, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, British Columbia, Canada.
Source
J Environ Monit. 2011 Mar;13(3):631-40
Date
Mar-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution - analysis
British Columbia
Cities
Endotoxins - analysis
Particulate Matter - chemistry
Seasons
Weather
Abstract
This study measured and analyzed the outdoor airborne endotoxin concentration, on particulate matter (PM²·5 and PM¹°), for two cities in the interior of British Columbia, Canada. Samples were collected throughout one seasonal cycle, from October 2005 to September 2006. It was found that concentrations were generally highest in the summer and fall, and lowest in the winter and spring. Temperature and relative humidity were found to be most influential, with highest endotoxin concentrations recorded during warm periods and moderate relative humidity (35 to 75 percent). No clear association of concentration with wind direction was observed. Results were comparable between the two cities considered in this study, and concentrations were similar to or slightly higher than those reported by other studies considering urban locations. Endotoxin concentration was also found to be positively associated with agricultural dust sources identified by a source apportionment study conducted at one of the sampling locations.
PubMed ID
21264425 View in PubMed
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Bisphenol A in Solid Waste Materials, Leachate Water, and Air Particles from Norwegian Waste-Handling Facilities: Presence and Partitioning Behavior.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269991
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2015 Jul 7;49(13):7675-83
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-7-2015
Author
Nicolas Morin
Hans Peter H Arp
Sarah E Hale
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2015 Jul 7;49(13):7675-83
Date
Jul-7-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adsorption
Air
Benzhydryl Compounds - analysis
Dust - analysis
Environment
Norway
Particulate Matter - chemistry
Phenols - analysis
Resins, Synthetic - chemistry
Solid Waste - analysis
Temperature
Waste Disposal Facilities
Water - chemistry
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
The plastic additive bisphenol A (BPA) is commonly found in landfill leachate at levels exceeding acute toxicity benchmarks. To gain insight into the mechanisms controlling BPA emissions from waste and waste-handling facilities, a comprehensive field and laboratory campaign was conducted to quantify BPA in solid waste materials (glass, combustibles, vehicle fluff, waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), plastics, fly ash, bottom ash, and digestate), leachate water, and atmospheric dust from Norwegian sorting, incineration, and landfill facilities. Solid waste concentrations varied from below 0.002 mg/kg (fly ash) to 188 ± 125 mg/kg (plastics). A novel passive sampling method was developed to, for the first time, establish a set of waste-water partition coefficients, KD,waste, for BPA, and to quantify differences between total and freely dissolved concentrations in waste-facility leachate. Log-normalized KD,waste (L/kg) values were similar for all solid waste materials (from 2.4 to 3.1), excluding glass and metals, indicating BPA is readily leachable. Leachate concentrations were similar for landfills and WEEE/vehicle sorting facilities (from 0.7 to 200 µg/L) and dominated by the freely dissolved fraction, not bound to (plastic) colloids (agreeing with measured KD,waste values). Dust concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 50.7 mg/kgdust. Incineration appears to be an effective way to reduce BPA concentrations in solid waste, dust, and leachate.
PubMed ID
26055751 View in PubMed
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Chemical and microbial components of urban air PM cause seasonal variation of toxicological activity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273913
Source
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2015 Sep;40(2):375-87
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2015
Author
Pasi I Jalava
Mikko S Happo
Kati Huttunen
Markus Sillanpää
Risto Hillamo
Raimo O Salonen
Maija-Riitta Hirvonen
Source
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2015 Sep;40(2):375-87
Date
Sep-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - chemistry - toxicity
Animals
Cell Line
Cell Survival - drug effects
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Endotoxins - toxicity
Finland
Humans
In Vitro Techniques
Interleukin-6 - metabolism
Macrophages - drug effects - immunology
Mice
Particle Size
Particulate Matter - chemistry - toxicity
Polymyxin B - pharmacology
Seasons
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha - metabolism
Urban health
Abstract
The chemical and microbial composition of urban air particulate matter (PM) displays seasonal variation that may affect its harmfulness on human health. We studied the in vitro inflammatory and cellular metabolic activity/cytotoxicity of urban air particulate samples collected in four size-ranges (PM10-2.5, PM2.5-1, PM1-0.2, PM0.2) during four seasons in relatively clean urban environment in Helsinki, Finland. The composition of the same samples were analyzed, including ions, elements, PAH compounds and endotoxins. In addition, microbial contribution on the detected responses was studied by inhibiting the endotoxin-induced responses with Polymyxin B both in the PM samples and by two different bacterial strains representing Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) was exposed to the size segregated particulate samples as well as to microbe samples for 24h and markers of inflammation and cytotoxicity were analyzed. The toxicological responses were dependent on the dose as well as size range of the particles, PM10-2.5 being the most potent and smaller size ranges having significantly smaller responses. Samples collected during spring and autumn had in most cases the highest inflammatory activity. Soil components and other non-exhaust particulate emissions from road traffic correlated with inflammatory responses in coarse particles. Instead, PAH-compounds and K(+) had negative associations with the particle-induced inflammatory responses in fine particles, suggesting the role of incomplete biomass combustion. Endotoxin content was the highest in PM10-2.5 samples and correspondingly, the largest decrease in the responses by Polymyxin B was seen with the very same samples. We found also that inhibitory effect of Polymyxin B was not completely specific for Gram-negative bacteria. Thus, in addition to endotoxin, also other microbial components may have a significant effect on the toxicological responses by ambient particulate matter.
PubMed ID
26245811 View in PubMed
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Exploring variation and predictors of residential fine particulate matter infiltration.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature140051
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2010 Aug;7(8):3211-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2010
Author
Nina A Clark
Ryan W Allen
Perry Hystad
Lance Wallace
Sharon D Dell
Richard Foty
Ewa Dabek-Zlotorzynska
Greg Evans
Amanda J Wheeler
Author Affiliation
Health Canada, 269 Laurier Ave West, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. nina.clark@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2010 Aug;7(8):3211-24
Date
Aug-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution, Indoor - analysis
Environmental Exposure
Environmental monitoring
Housing
Humans
Ontario
Particle Size
Particulate Matter - chemistry
Abstract
Although individuals spend the majority of their time indoors, most epidemiological studies estimate personal air pollution exposures based on outdoor levels. This almost certainly results in exposure misclassification as pollutant infiltration varies between homes. However, it is often not possible to collect detailed measures of infiltration for individual homes in large-scale epidemiological studies and thus there is currently a need to develop models that can be used to predict these values. To address this need, we examined infiltration of fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) and identified determinants of infiltration for 46 residential homes in Toronto, Canada. Infiltration was estimated using the indoor/outdoor sulphur ratio and information on hypothesized predictors of infiltration were collected using questionnaires and publicly available databases. Multiple linear regression was used to develop the models. Mean infiltration was 0.52 ± 0.21 with no significant difference across heating and non-heating seasons. Predictors of infiltration were air exchange, presence of central air conditioning, and forced air heating. These variables accounted for 38% of the variability in infiltration. Without air exchange, the model accounted for 26% of the variability. Effective modelling of infiltration in individual homes remains difficult, although key variables such as use of central air conditioning show potential as an easily attainable indicator of infiltration.
Notes
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PubMed ID
20948956 View in PubMed
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Fatty acid and stable isotope characteristics of sea ice and pelagic particulate organic matter in the Bering Sea: tools for estimating sea ice algal contribution to Arctic food web production.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257140
Source
Oecologia. 2014 Mar;174(3):699-712
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2014
Author
Shiway W Wang
Suzanne M Budge
Rolf R Gradinger
Katrin Iken
Matthew J Wooller
Author Affiliation
School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, Institute of Marine Science, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK, 99775, USA, shiway@gmail.com.
Source
Oecologia. 2014 Mar;174(3):699-712
Date
Mar-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Carbon
Carbon Isotopes - analysis
Cyanobacteria - physiology
Diatoms - physiology
Dinoflagellida - physiology
Ecosystem
Fatty Acids - analysis
Food chain
Ice Cover - chemistry - microbiology
Nitrogen Isotopes - analysis
Oceans and Seas
Particulate Matter - chemistry
Seasons
Abstract
We determined fatty acid (FA) profiles and carbon stable isotopic composition of individual FAs (d(13)CFA values) from sea ice particulate organic matter (i-POM) and pelagic POM (p-POM) in the Bering Sea during maximum ice extent, ice melt, and ice-free conditions in 2010. Based on FA biomarkers, differences in relative composition of diatoms, dinoflagellates, and bacteria were inferred for i-POM versus p-POM and for seasonal succession stages in p-POM. Proportions of diatom markers were higher in i-POM (16:4n-1, 6.6-8.7%; 20:5n-3, 19.6-25.9%) than in p-POM (16:4n-1, 1.2-4.0%; 20:5n-3, 5.5-14.0%). The dinoflagellate marker 22:6n-3/20:5n-3 was highest in p-POM. Bacterial FA concentration was higher in the bottom 1 cm of sea ice (14-245 µg L(-1)) than in the water column (0.6-1.7 µg L(-1)). Many i-POM d(13)C(FA) values were higher (up to ~10‰) than those of p-POM, and i-POM d(13)C(FA) values increased with day length. The higher i-POM d(13)C(FA) values are most likely related to the reduced dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) availability within the semi-closed sea ice brine channel system. Based on a modified Rayleigh equation, the fraction of sea ice DIC fixed in i-POM ranged from 12 to 73%, implying that carbon was not limiting for primary productivity in the sympagic habitat. These differences in FA composition and d(13)C(FA) values between i-POM and p-POM will aid efforts to track the proportional contribution of sea ice algal carbon to higher trophic levels in the Bering Sea and likely other Arctic seas.
PubMed ID
24276772 View in PubMed
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Fluvial influence on the biochemical composition of particulate organic matter in the Laptev and Western East Siberian seas during 2015.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature307218
Source
Mar Environ Res. 2020 Mar; 155:104873
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-2020
Author
So Hyun Ahn
KwanWoo Kim
Naeun Jo
Jae Joong Kang
Jae Hyung Lee
Terry E Whitledge
Dean A Stockwell
Ho Won Lee
Sang Heon Lee
Author Affiliation
University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Horn Point Laboratory, Cambridge, MD, 21613, USA.
Source
Mar Environ Res. 2020 Mar; 155:104873
Date
Mar-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Carbon Isotopes
Nitrogen Isotopes
Pacific Ocean
Particulate Matter - chemistry
Phytoplankton
Seawater - chemistry
Siberia
Abstract
Here, we investigated the elemental (C/N ratio) and isotopic signatures (d13C) and major biomolecules (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids) and their relative abundance (i.e., the biochemical composition) in particulate organic matter (POM) to assess their origin and fate in the Laptev and western East Siberian seas during late summer/fall of 2015. In addition, we compared our results with the summer data of 2013 collected from Laptev and northwestern East Siberian seas. In accordance with the observed hydrological structure (i.e., a northward, warmer, diluted freshwater plume than previously observed in 2013), the more depleted d13C (-28.2 ± 0.9‰) and higher C/N ratio (10.8 ± 2.0) than those of 2013 signalled that fluvially released terrestrial organic carbon (TerrOC) was the main source of the POM, unlike in 2013, when phytoplankton was the dominant source (d13C = -24.9 ± 1.0‰, C/N ratio = 7.6 ± 2.4; Ahn et al., 2019). During the offshore transport of heterogeneous TerrOC, carbohydrates seem to be the primary contributor to the bulk POM as a result of selective degradation and hydrodynamic sorting. Despite the TerrOC-dominated system in 2015, some marine influence was also found. The estimated phytoplankton biomass was low and comparable among the study sites. In addition, the presence of resting spores and high ammonium concentrations within the water column may suggest senescent and, to some extent, degrading conditions of the resident phytoplankton. In this regard, carbohydrate concentrations and freshwater content were significantly correlated (r = 0.79, p 
PubMed ID
31965975 View in PubMed
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Influence of gaseous and particulate species on neutralization processes of polar aerosol and snow - A case study from Ny-Ålesund.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297364
Source
J Environ Sci (China). 2019 Feb; 76:12-25
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Feb-2019
Author
Roseline C Thakur
Meloth Thamban
Author Affiliation
ESSO - National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research, Headland Sada, Vasco da Gama, Goa 403804, India. Electronic address: roseline.thakur@helsinki.fi.
Source
J Environ Sci (China). 2019 Feb; 76:12-25
Date
Feb-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Aerosols
Cold Climate
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Nitrogen - chemistry
Particulate Matter - chemistry
Snow - chemistry
Sulfur - chemistry
Abstract
The inter-conversion of nitrogen and sulfur species between the gas and particulate phases and their interaction with alkaline species influences the acidity of the aerosols and surface snow. To better understand these processes, a short field campaign was undertaken in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, during 13th April 2012 to 24th April 2012. Air measurements were carried out through a particulate sampler equipped with denuders and filter packs for simultaneous collection of trace gases (HNO3, NO2, SO2 and reactive nitrogen compounds) and aerosols, with daily collection of snow samples. Ionic composition of the samples was analyzed using ion chromatography technique. The results suggested that nitrate-rich aerosols are formed when PAN (peroxy acetyl nitrate) disassociates to form NO2 and HNO3 which further hydrolyzes to form pNO3- (particulate nitrate). This resulted in a high contribution of pNO3- (62%) to the total nitrogen budget over the study area. The acidity of the aerosols and snow evaluated through cation/anion ratio (C/A) indicated alkaline conditions with C/A>2. The bicarbonates/carbonates of Mg2+ played an important role in neutralization processes of surface snow while the role of NH3 was dominant in aerosol neutralization processes. Such neutralization processes can increase the aerosol hygroscopicity causing warming. Chloride depletion in the snow was significant as compared to the aerosols, indicating two important processes, scavenging of coarse sea salt by the snow and gaseous adsorption of SO2 on the snow surface. However, a more systematic and long term study is required for a better understanding of the neutralization processes and chemical inter-conversions.
PubMed ID
30528003 View in PubMed
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Long-term Exposure to Particulate Matter Constituents and the Incidence of Coronary Events in 11 European Cohorts.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature270480
Source
Epidemiology. 2015 Jul;26(4):565-74
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2015
Author
Kathrin Wolf
Massimo Stafoggia
Giulia Cesaroni
Zorana Jovanovic Andersen
Rob Beelen
Claudia Galassi
Frauke Hennig
Enrica Migliore
Johanna Penell
Fulvio Ricceri
Mette Sørensen
Anu W Turunen
Regina Hampel
Barbara Hoffmann
Hagen Kälsch
Tiina Laatikainen
Göran Pershagen
Ole Raaschou-Nielsen
Carlotta Sacerdote
Paolo Vineis
Chiara Badaloni
Josef Cyrys
Kees de Hoogh
Kirsten T Eriksen
Aleksandra Jedynska
Menno Keuken
Ingeborg Kooter
Timo Lanki
Andrea Ranzi
Dorothea Sugiri
Ming-Yi Tsai
Meng Wang
Gerard Hoek
Bert Brunekreef
Annette Peters
Francesco Forastiere
Source
Epidemiology. 2015 Jul;26(4):565-74
Date
Jul-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Air Pollution - statistics & numerical data
Cohort Studies
Copper - analysis
Denmark - epidemiology
Environmental Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Germany - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Iron - analysis
Italy - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - epidemiology - mortality
Myocardial Ischemia - epidemiology - mortality
Nickel - analysis
Particulate Matter - chemistry
Potassium - analysis
Proportional Hazards Models
Silicon - analysis
Sulfur - analysis
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Vanadium - analysis
Zinc - analysis
Abstract
Long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) has been associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality but little is known about the role of the chemical composition of PM. This study examined the association of residential long-term exposure to PM components with incident coronary events.
Eleven cohorts from Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, and Italy participated in this analysis. 5,157 incident coronary events were identified within 100,166 persons followed on average for 11.5 years. Long-term residential concentrations of PM
PubMed ID
25978793 View in PubMed
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Mixing state of size-selected submicrometer particles in the Arctic in May and September 2012.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259089
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2014 Jan 21;48(2):909-19
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-21-2014
Author
Kihong Park
Gibaek Kim
Jae-suk Kim
Young-Jun Yoon
Hee-joo Cho
Johan Ström
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2014 Jan 21;48(2):909-19
Date
Jan-21-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air
Arctic Regions
Geography
Particle Size
Particulate Matter - chemistry
Seasons
Sulfates - analysis
Svalbard
Volatilization
Wettability
Abstract
Aerosols have been associated with large uncertainties in estimates of the radiation budget and cloud formation processes in the Arctic. This paper reports the results of a study of in situ measurements of hygroscopicity, fraction of volatile species, mixing state, and off-line morphological and elemental analysis of Aitken and accumulation mode particles in the Arctic (Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard) in May and September 2012. The accumulation mode particles were more abundant in May than in September. This difference was due to more air mass flow from lower latitude continental areas, weaker vertical mixing, and less wet scavenging in May than in September, which may have led to a higher amount of long-range transport aerosols entering the Arctic in the spring. The Aitken mode particles observed intermittently in May were produced by nucleation, absent significant external mixing, whereas the accumulation mode particles displayed significant external mixing. The occurrence of an external mixing state was observed more often in May than in September and more often in accumulation mode particles than in Aitken mode particles, and it was associated more with continental air masses (Siberian) than with other air masses. The external mixing of the accumulation mode particles in May may have been caused by multiple sources (i.e., long-range transport aerosols with aging and marine aerosols). These groups of externally mixed particles were subdivided into different mixing structures (internal mixtures of predominantly sulfates and volatile organics without nonvolatile species and internal mixtures of sulfates and nonvolatile components, such as sea salts, minerals, and soot). The variations in the mixing states and chemical species of the Arctic aerosols in terms of their sizes, air masses, and seasons suggest that the continuous size-dependent measurements observed in this study are useful for obtaining better estimates of the effects of these aerosols on climate change.
PubMed ID
24328132 View in PubMed
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Polychlorinated biphenyls in glaciers. 1. Deposition history from an Alpine ice core.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257100
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2014 Jul 15;48(14):7842-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-15-2014
Author
Pavlina Aneva Pavlova
Peter Schmid
Christian Bogdal
Christine Steinlin
Theo M Jenk
Margit Schwikowski
Author Affiliation
Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland.
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2014 Jul 15;48(14):7842-8
Date
Jul-15-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Ecosystem
Environmental Pollutants - analysis
Geography
Ice Cover - chemistry
Particulate Matter - chemistry
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Solubility
Switzerland
Abstract
We present a highly time-resolved historical record of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from an Alpine ice core (Fiescherhorn glacier, Switzerland). Introduced in the 1940s, PCBs were widely used industrial chemicals. Because of their persistence they are still found in the environment, long after their production phase-out. The Fiescherhorn ice core record covers the entire time period of industrial use of PCBs, that is, 1940-2002. The total concentration of six PCBs varies from 0.5 to 5 ng L(-1) and reveals a temporal trend, with an 8-fold increase from the early 1940s to the peak value in the 1970s. The level in 2002 is comparable to the concentration in the 1940s, when PCBs were introduced into the market. The time trend of PCBs associated with the particulate fraction closely follows the trend found in the dissolved fraction, but the absolute values are a factor of 10 lower. In addition to changing emissions, fluctuations in the PCB record were explained by variabilty in convective transport and postdepositional processes such as surface melting. Concentrations of PCBs are in agreement with data from seasonal snow samples in the Alps, but are a factor of 100 higher than concentrations measured in the Arctic. Contrasting time trends and congener patterns between the Alpine and Arctic region indicate the importance of atmospheric transport and postdepositional effects.
PubMed ID
24968761 View in PubMed
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13 records – page 1 of 2.