Otitis media (OM) is one of the most common early childhood infections, resulting in an enormous economic burden to the health care system through unscheduled doctor visits and antibiotic prescriptions.
The objective of this study was to investigate the potential association between ambient air pollution exposure and emergency department (ED) visits for OM.
Ten years of ED data were obtained from Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, and linked to levels of air pollution: carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter (PM) of median aerometric diameter
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Cites: Vaccine. 2008 Dec 23;26 Suppl 7:G5-1019094935
In the paper there are presented data on the hygienic evaluation of the air pollution in the city of Kazan as a risk factor for the public health. The largest contribution to the air pollution in the city of Kazan was shown to be endowed by vehicles. The proportion of vehicle emissions in total emissions in the city in 2012 amounted to 71.4%. According to monitoring data the average annual concentrations of pollutant substances in 2012 exceeded the hygienic standards for benzo (a) pyrene--in 2.5 times, soot--2.2 times, nitrogen dioxide--1.8 times, formaldehyde--1.7 times. The risk of inhalation exposure is assessed as high, the greatest contribution to the risk is contributed by suspended matter PM2.5, soot and nitrogen dioxide.
Institut for Folkesundhedsvidenskab, Afdeling for Miljø og Sundhed, Det Sundhedsvidenskabelige Fakultet, Københavns Universitet, Øster Farimagsgade 5, DK-1014 København K, Denmark. email@example.com
Air quality, health and climate change are closely connected. Ozone depends on temperature and the greenhouse gas methane from cattle and biomass. Pollen presence depends on temperature and CO2. The effect of climate change on particulate air pollution is complex, but the likely net effect is greater health risks. Reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions by reduced livestock production and use of combustion for energy production, transport and heating will also improve air quality. Energy savings in buildings and use of CO2 neutral fuels should not deteriorate indoor and outdoor air quality.
The Peace Bridge in Buffalo, New York, which spans the Niagara River at the east end of Lake Erie, is one of the busiest U.S. border crossings. The Peace Bridge plaza on the U.S. side is a complex of roads, customs inspection areas, passport control areas, and duty-free shops. On average 5000 heavy-duty diesel trucks and 20,000 passenger cars traverse the border daily, making the plaza area a potential "hot spot" for emissions from mobile sources. In a series of winter and summer field campaigns, we measured air pollutants, including many compounds considered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA*) as mobile-source air toxics (MSATs), at three fixed sampling sites: on the shore of Lake Erie, approximately 500 m upwind (under predominant wind conditions) of the Peace Bridge plaza; immediately downwind of (adjacent to) the plaza; and 500 m farther downwind, into the community of west Buffalo. Pollutants sampled were particulate matter (PM)
Previous analyses of continuously measured compounds in Fort McKay, an indigenous community in the Athabasca Oil Sands, have detected increasing concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and total hydrocarbons (THC), but not of sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), total reduced sulfur compounds (TRS), or particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter
Environmental exposure during pregnancy may have lifelong health consequences for the offspring and some studies have association between maternal exposure to air pollution during pregnancy and offspring's birth weight. However, many of these studies do not take into account small-scale variations in exposure, residential mobility, and work addresses during pregnancy. We used information from the National Birth Registry of Norway to examine associations between ambient environmental exposure such as air pollution and temperature, and offspring's birth weight taking advantage of information on migration history and work address in a large population-based cohort. A dispersion model was used to estimate ambient air pollution levels at all residential addresses and work addresses for a total of 25,229 pregnancies between 1999 and 2002 in Oslo, Norway. Ambient exposure to traffic pollution for the entire pregnancy was associated with a reduction in term birth weight in crude analyzes when comparing children of the highest and lowest exposed mothers. No evidence for an association between exposure to traffic pollution at home and work addresses and term birth weight after adjustment for covariates known to influence birth weight during pregnancy. After stratification, small statistically non-significant reductions were present but only for multiparious mothers. This group also had less residential mobility and less employment during pregnancy. The overall findings suggest no clear association between term birth weight and traffic pollution exposure during pregnancy. However, mobility patterns could introduce possible confounding when examining small-scale variations in exposure by using addresses. This could be of importance in future studies.
Environmental factors may play a role in the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We examined whether long-term exposures to air pollution were associated with the risk of RA in the Swedish Epidemiological Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis Study.
We studied 1497 incident RA cases and 2536 controls. Local levels of particulate matter (PM10) and gaseous pollutants (sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) from traffic and home heating were predicted for all residential addresses. We examined the association of an IQR increase (2 µg/m3 for PM10, 8 µg/m3 for SO2 and 9 µg/m3 for NO2) in each pollutant at different time points before symptom onset and average exposure with the risk of all RA and the risk of the rheumatoid factor and anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) RA phenotypes.
There was no evidence of an increased risk of RA with PM10. Total RA risks were modestly elevated for the gaseous pollutants, but were not statistically significant after adjustment for smoking and education (OR 1.18, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.43 and OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.19 for SO2 and NO2 in the 10th year before onset). Stronger elevated risks were observed for individuals with less than a university education and with the ACPA-negative RA phenotype.
No consistent overall associations between air pollution in the Stockholm area and the risk of RA were observed. However, there was a suggestion of increased risks of RA incidence with increases in NO2 from local traffic and SO2 from home heating sources with stronger associations for the ACPA-negative phenotype.
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BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence for the role of air pollution in the development and triggering of wheezing symptoms in young children. A study was undertaken to examine the effect of exposure to air pollution on wheezing symptoms in children under the age of 3 years with genetic susceptibility to asthma. METHODS: Daily recordings of symptoms were obtained for 205 children participating in the birth cohort study Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Children and living in Copenhagen for the first 3 years of life. Daily air pollution levels for particulate matter
The particulate matter (PM) concentration has been one of the most relevant environmental concerns in recent decades due to its prejudicial effects on living beings and the earth's atmosphere. High PM concentration affects the human health in several ways leading to short and long term diseases. Thus, forecasting systems have been developed to support decisions of the organizations and governments to alert the population. Forecasting systems based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have been highlighted in the literature due to their performances. In general, three ANN-based approaches have been found for this task: ANN trained via learning algorithms, hybrid systems that combine search algorithms with ANNs, and hybrid systems that combine ANN with other forecasters. Independent of the approach, it is common to suppose that the residuals (error series), obtained from the difference between actual series and forecasting, have a white noise behavior. However, it is possible that this assumption is infringed due to: misspecification of the forecasting model, complexity of the time series or temporal patterns of the phenomenon not captured by the forecaster. This paper proposes an approach to improve the performance of PM forecasters from residuals modeling. The approach analyzes the remaining residuals recursively in search of temporal patterns. At each iteration, if there are temporal patterns in the residuals, the approach generates the forecasting of the residuals in order to improve the forecasting of the PM time series. The proposed approach can be used with either only one forecaster or by combining two or more forecasting models. In this study, the approach is used to improve the performance of a hybrid system (HS) composed by genetic algorithm (GA) and ANN from residuals modeling performed by two methods, namely, ANN and own hybrid system. Experiments were performed for PM2.5 and PM10 concentration series in Kallio and Vallila stations in Helsinki and evaluated from six metrics. Experimental results show that the proposed approach improves the accuracy of the forecasting method in terms of fitness function for all cases, when compared with the method without correction. The correction via HS obtained a superior performance, reaching the best results in terms of fitness function and in five out of six metrics. These results also were found when a sensitivity analysis was performed varying the proportions of the sets of training, validation and test. The proposed approach reached consistent results when compared with the forecasting method without correction, showing that it can be an interesting tool for correction of PM forecasters.
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Cites: World J Gastroenterol. 2013 Jul 7;19(25):3951-623840139
Exposure to particulate air pollution increases respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in elderly, possibly through inflammation and vascular dysfunction.
We examined potential beneficial effects of indoor air filtration in the homes of elderly, including people taking vasoactive drugs.Forty-eight nonsmoking subjects (51 to 81 years) in 27 homes were included in this randomized, double-blind, crossover intervention study with consecutive two-week periods with or without the inclusion of a high-efficiency particle air filter in re-circulating custom built units in their living room and bedroom. We measured blood pressure, microvascular and lung function and collected blood samples for hematological, inflammation, monocyte surface and lung cell damage markers before and at day 2, 7 and 14 during each exposure scenario.
The particle filters reduced the median concentration of PM2.5 from approximately 8 to 4 µg/m3 and the particle number concentration from 7669 to 5352 particles/cm3. No statistically significant effects of filtration as category were observed on microvascular and lung function or the biomarkers of systemic inflammation among all subjects, or in the subgroups taking (n = 11) or not taking vasoactive drugs (n = 37). However, the filtration efficacy was variable and microvascular function was within 2 days significantly increased with the actual PM2.5 decrease in the bedroom, especially among 25 subjects not taking any drugs.
Substantial exposure contrasts in the bedroom and no confounding by drugs appear required for improved microvascular function by air filtration, whereas no other beneficial effect was found in this elderly population.
Cites: Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008 Feb;294(2):H944-5318083905
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