Meteorological conditions and air pollution in urban environments have been associated with general population and elderly mortality, showing seasonal variation.
This study is designed to evaluate the relationship between apparent temperature (AT) and air pollution (PM2.5) vs. mortality in elderly population of Metro Vancouver.
Statistical analyses are performed on moving sum daily mortality rates vs. moving average AT and PM2.5 in 1-, 2-, 3-, 5-, and 7-day models for all seasons, warm temperatures above 15?C, and cold temperatures below 10?C.
Approximately 37% of the variation in all-season mortality from circulatory and respiratory causes can be explained by the variation in 7-day moving average apparent temperature (r??=?0.37, p
Cites: Environ Monit Assess. 2006 Aug;119(1-3):425-3916741816
Cites: J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2006 Jun;56(6):709-4216805397
An in situ particle imaging system for measurement of high concentrations of suspended particles ranging from 30µm to several mm in diameter, is presented. The system obtains quasi-silhouettes of particles suspended within an open-path sample volume of up to 5cm in length. Benchmarking against spherical standards and the LISST-100 show good agreement, providing confidence in measurements from the system when extending beyond the size, concentration and particle classification capabilities of the LISST-100. Particle-specific transmittance is used to classify particle type, independent of size and shape. This is applied to mixtures of oil droplets, gas bubbles and oil-coated gas bubbles, to provide independent measures of oil and gas size distributions, concentrations, and oil-gas ratios during simulated subsea releases. The system is also applied to in situ measurements of high concentrations of large mineral flocs surrounding a submarine mine tailings placement within a Norwegian Fjord.
Galvanic manufacturing is widely employed and can be found in nearly every average city in Russia. The release and accumulation of different metals (Me), depending on the technology used can be found in the vicinities of galvanic plants. Under the environmental protection act in Russia, the regulations for galvanic manufacturing do not include the regulations and safety standards for ambient ultrafine and nanosized particulate matter (PM). To assess whether Me nanoparticles (NP) are among environmental pollutants caused by galvanic manufacturing, the level of Me NP were tested in urban snow samples collected around galvanic enterprises in two cities. Employing transmission electronic microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and a laser diffraction particle size analyzer, we found that the size distribution of tested Me NP was within 10-120 nm range. This is the first study to report that Me NP of Fe, Cr, Pb, Al, Ni, Cu, and Zn were detected around galvanic shop settings.
Cites: Toxicol Sci. 2001 Dec;64(2):243-5211719707
Cites: Environ Toxicol. 2013 Feb;28(2):61-7521384495
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Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 1998 Aug 1;148(3):241-89690360
In recent years, the Chinese government has made tremendous efforts to reduce the emissions of atmospheric pollutants throughout the country. An apparent improvement in air quality was observed in Beijing and its adjacent region during the winter of 2017/2018. However, caution should be taken in directly attributing this improvement to air control actions without taking the effects of climate variability into account. Here, we develop a statistical prediction model that can successfully predict the variability of wintertime PM2.5 concentrations observed over these regions. Our analysis indicates that the remarkable decrease in PM2.5 concentrations over the North China Plain (NCP) observed during the winter of 2017/2018 can be largely explained by changes in meteorological conditions. To clarify which climate factors control the inter-annual variability of wintertime PM2.5 pollution over the NCP, we further reconstructed a 30-year time series of wintertime PM2.5 levels over the NCP over the period of 1988-2017 using our statistical model. Through our analysis, we found that the combined Arctic-tropical climate effects related to the ENSO and Arctic warming controlled the inter-annual variability of wintertime PM2.5 over the NCP. Specifically, the rapid warming of the Barents-Kara Sea region enhances the Siberian High and thus plays an important role in improving the air quality over the NCP during the 2017/2018 wintertime. These results help us understand the role of climate variability in modulating air quality, especially its contributions to the winter of 2017/2018. These results may assist in the evaluation of current air control actions and the revision of relevant policy for the future, which are urgently needed for China.
In May 2003, high concentrations of organic carbon (OC) in PM2.5 were measured in Nagoya, a representative metropolitan area in Japan. To investigate the influence of possible forest fires on PM2.5 in Japan via long-range aerosol transport, the radiocarbon ((14)C) concentrations of PM2.5 samples from April 2003 to March 2004 were measured. (14)C concentrations in total carbon (TC) from May to early June showed higher values than those in other periods. The OC/elemental carbon (EC) ratios from May to early June were also significantly higher than the ones in other periods. In addition, OC concentrations from May to early June were typically high. These results indicate that the abundant OC fraction from May to early June in Nagoya consisted predominantly of contemporary carbon. Furthermore, simulations of diffusion and transport of organic matter (OM) in East Asia showed that abundant OM originating from East Siberia spread over East Asia and Japan in May and early June. Backward air mass trajectories from this time frame indicate that the air mass in Nagoya likely first passed through East Siberia where fire events were prevalent. However, the backward trajectories showed that the air mass after early June did not originate mainly from Siberia, and correspondingly, the (14)C and OC concentrations showed lower values than those from May to early June. Therefore, the authors conclude that contemporary carbon originating from the forest fire in East Siberia was transported to Nagoya, where it significantly contributed to the high observed concentrations of both OC and (14)C.
Tunnel rehabilitation work involves exposure to various air contaminants, including airborne particulate matter (APM). Little is known on the contents of different chemical components of APM generated during tunnel work. The objective of the present study was to characterize exposure to APM and various elements for different job categories in different size fractions of APM during a subsea tunnel rehabilitation project carried out in Western Norway. Personal as well as stationary samples of inhalable, thoracic and respirable dust were collected from workers divided into 11 different job categories based on work operations performed, and air concentrations of a range of elements were determined using high-resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS). Overall, APM concentrations were low, but with some measurements exceeding the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for inhalable particles, and considerable proportions of respirable and especially inhalable APM exceeding 10% of the TLVs. For most elements, air concentrations measured were quite low, in the ng/m(3) range, except for the major crustal elements Si, Fe, Al, and Mg, which were found to be in the µg/m(3) range. Asphalt millers overall had the highest exposure levels for APM and most measured elements; for instance, mean concentrations of V, Rb, and Mn were 380, 210, and 2000 ng/m(3) in inhalable and 33, 44, and 310 ng/m(3) in respirable APM. Mounting PVC membrane seemed to generate elevated levels of Cr, Zn, Sn, Pb, Sb, As, Mn, Fe, and Ni, whereas typical bedrock elements were elevated during drilling activities compared to the low exposed categories lead car drivers, foremen/surveyors, drivers of heavy-duty vehicles, and electricians. Overall, stationary samples contained lower amounts of dust and elemental constituents compared to personal samples. Elemental air concentrations were highly variable with occasional elevated values for APM and certain elements, particularly Cr and Zn.
In urban environments, airborne particles are continuously emitted, followed by atmospheric aging. Also, particles emitted elsewhere, transported by winds, contribute to the urban aerosol. We studied the effective density (mass-mobility relationship) and mixing state with respect to the density of particles in central Copenhagen, in wintertime. The results are related to particle origin, morphology, and aging. Using a differential mobility analyzer-aerosol particle mass analyzer (DMA-APM), we determined that particles in the diameter range of 50-400 nm were of two groups: porous soot aggregates and more dense particles. Both groups were present at each size in varying proportions. Two types of temporal variability in the relative number fraction of the two groups were found: soot correlated with intense traffic in a diel pattern and dense particles increased during episodes with long-range transport from polluted continental areas. The effective density of each group was relatively stable over time, especially of the soot aggregates, which had effective densities similar to those observed in laboratory studies of fresh diesel exhaust emissions. When heated to 300 °C, the soot aggregate volatile mass fraction was ~10%. For the dense particles, the volatile mass fraction varied from ~80% to nearly 100%.
An aquatic surface microlayer covers more than 70% of the world's surface. Our knowledge about the biology of the surface microlayer of Lake Baikal, the most ancient lake on Earth with a surface area of 31,500 km², is still scarce. The total bacterial abundance, the number of cultured heterotrophic temporal bacteria, and the spatial distribution of bacteria in the surface microlayer and underlying waters of Lake Baikal were studied. For the first time, the chemical composition of the surface microlayer of Lake Baikal was determined. There were significant differences and a direct relationship between the total bacterial abundance in the surface microlayer and underlying waters of Lake Baikal, as well as between the number of cultured heterotrophic bacteria in studied water layers in the period of summer stratification. In the surface microlayer, the share of cultured heterotrophic bacteria was higher than in the underlying waters. The surface microlayer was characterized by enrichment with PO43-, total organic carbon and suspended particulate matter compared to underlying waters. A direct relationship was found between the number of bacteria in the surface microlayer and environmental factors, including temperature, total organic carbon and suspended particulate matter concentration.