Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with a significant burden of illness and cost to society, which has been difficult to quantify. Our objective was to use linked administrative databases from the population of Ontario, Canada, to assess the prevalence of parkinsonism, physician- and drug-related costs, and hospital utilization for parkinsonian patients compared with age/sex matched controls. An inception cohort of parkinsonian cases from 1993/1994 was age and sex matched (1:2) to controls and followed for 6 years. Patients were identified by the diagnostic code for PD, the use of specific PD drugs, or a combination. The parkinsonian case cohort (15,304) was matched to (30,608) controls that did not have parkinsonism. The age-adjusted prevalence rates were 3.63 for men and for 3.24 women per 1,000 (increased by 5.4% for men and 9.8% for women). Physician costs were 1.4 times more, there were 1.44 times more hospital admissions, admissions were on average 1.19 times longer, and drug costs were 3.0 times more for parkinsonian cases. We conclude that the substantially higher physician and drug costs as well as hospitalization rates compared with controls clearly suggest that parkinsonism is associated with large direct costs to society.
To calculate the costs of brain disorders on the national level.
Electronic data bases, national registers and internet data.
Any brain disorder was estimated to affect a fifth of the Finnish population. The three most common disorders were migraine, anxiety disorder and affective disorder. The total costs of brain disorders constituted 3% of the national gross product, or 45% of all the health-care costs. However, this is likely a conservative estimate, because not all chronic brain disorders and not all costs were included. Of the total costs of brain disorders, 32% were for direct health care, 23% for indirect medical care and 45% for indirect costs. Dementia was the most costly individual brain disorder followed by addiction and affective disorders. Most costly per case were brain tumours and multiple sclerosis.
Brain disorders constitute a costly part of the population's health costs. Directed preventive measures are needed to counteract the population morbidity and to control the increasing cost pressure in health care.
Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting approximately 1% of the population above 65 years of age. The aim of this study was to define the estimated Danish IPD population and to elucidate source of income and labour market affiliation for working-age IPD patients.
IPD cases were included through the Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. The participants had to be alive by the end of 2010 and at least twice have cashed in prescriptions on IPD medication in the 2009-2010 period. Information on employment status and transfer income was retrieved through the DREAM database under the Danish Ministry of Employment.
A total of 7,033 estimated IPD patients were identified. The mean age at time of registration (2010, week 50) was 72 years. Overall, 7% of the IPD patients were employed and 5% were self-supportive. In the working age range (18-64 years), 25% were employed and 10% enrolled in supported employment. Compared with the age-adjusted general population, twice as many IPD patients were outside the ordinary labour market and, furthermore, the proportion receiving anticipatory pension was increased threefold. The majority (89%) of the patients were living at home with a spouse (59%). 11% were nursing home residents.
The working age IPD population was more prone to be outside employment and to receive public transfer income than an age-adjusted population sample.
The study was funded by the Danish Parkinson Association.
Previous studies have shown the Fennoscandian region to be a high-risk area for multiple sclerosis (MS). In order to investigate the distribution of MS in Sweden, mortality (1952-1992) and disability pensioning statistics (1971-1994) were studied. A total of 11,414 cases with a disability pension and 5,421 cases with MS on their death certificate were analysed according to county and time period and the results were compared with the mortality figures for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and disability pensioning statistics for Parkinson's disease. We found increasing rates of both MS mortality and disability pensioning. Disability pensioning correlated well with mortality 10 years later (r = 0.42, p = 0.04). We also found a marked geographical variation. Värmland county had the highest mortality, with 14 out of its 16 municipalities having higher rates than the national mean. Unexpectedly, we found a high correlation between mortality due to MS and ALS (r = 0.60, p = 0.002).
The purpose of the present study was to establish how Parkinson's disease (PD) affects working capacity. Altogether, 937 (70%) of 1,343 working-aged members of the Finnish Parkinson Association participated in a questionnaire study. The ages of the subjects were between 29 and 65 years, median 59.0 years; 508 (54%) were men. The median (quartile range) duration of PD symptoms was 7.3 (4.3-11.3) years, and the median self-estimated severity of the disease on the Hoehn & Yahr scale was 2. Only 150 of 937 subjects (16%) were still working: 112 (12%) full-time and 38 (4%) part-time. Among those 343 (37%) who had retired purely because of PD at a median age of 53.4 years, the median working time was 1.7 years after established diagnosis. In part-time work, PD patients had been able to continue for a median of 4.3 years. PD often leads to early retirement; compared with the general Finnish population of similar age, PD patients had retired on the average 6 years earlier. Young age, mild symptoms, and short duration of the disease as well as adjustments enabling easier employment were associated with the possibility to continue longer in the work force.
We estimated resource use and costs in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), thereby providing baseline data for future economic evaluations of therapeutic interventions. Data were collected from medical records of a South Swedish cohort of 127 PD patients during 1 year (1996) and a mailed questionnaire inquiring about cost-related consequences and resource use in 1996 and in 2000. Annual costs were calculated based on prevalence and expressed in SEK (monetary value of the year 2000). Direct health care costs averaged approximately SEK 29,000 ( approximately USD 2,900; EUR 3,200) per patient per year, of which drugs were the most costly component. Nonmedical direct costs were higher than direct health care costs, averaging approximately SEK 43,000 ( approximately USD 4,300; EUR 4,800) per patient per year, and costs due to lost production were approximately SEK 52,000 ( approximately USD 5,200; EUR 5,800) per patient per year. The mean total annual cost for PD in our sample approximated SEK 124,000 ( approximately USD 12,400; EUR 13,800) per patient. These findings are roughly within the same range as estimates from other countries and show that PD causes a considerable societal burden. In addition to other outcomes, evaluations of the economic implications of new therapeutic interventions are highly warranted. In this perspective, the present study provides valuable baseline data.