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[2 women--2 parents. Interview by Lisbet Harstad.]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature59428
Source
Jordmorbladet. 1994;(5):18-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
1994

The 2-year costs and effects of a public health nursing case management intervention on mood-disordered single parents on social assistance.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature191135
Source
J Eval Clin Pract. 2002 Feb;8(1):45-59
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2002
Author
Maureen Markle-Reid
Gina Browne
Jacqueline Roberts
Amiram Gafni
Carolyn Byrne
Author Affiliation
System-Linked Research Unit on Health and Social Service Utilization, School of Nursing, McMaster University, Room 3N46, 1200 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, L8N 3Z5, Canada. mreid@mcmaster.ca
Source
J Eval Clin Pract. 2002 Feb;8(1):45-59
Date
Feb-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adult
Case Management - economics
Child
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Depressive Disorder - economics - nursing - rehabilitation
Employment
Female
Health Care Costs
Health Services - utilization
Health Services Accessibility
Humans
Male
Ontario
Public Assistance
Public Health Nursing - economics
Single Parent - psychology
Social Adjustment
Abstract
This randomized controlled trial was designed to evaluate the 2-year costs and effects of a proactive, public health nursing case management approach compared with a self-directed approach for 129 single parents (98% were mothers) on social assistance in a Canadian setting. A total of 43% of these parents had a major depressive disorder and 38% had two or three other health conditions at baseline.
Study participants were recruited over a 12 month period and randomized into two groups: one receiving proactive public health nursing and one which did not.
At 2 years, 69 single parents with 123 children receiving proactive public health nursing (compared with 60 parents with 91 children who did not receive public health nursing services) showed a slightly greater reduction in dysthymia and slightly higher social adjustment. There was no difference between the public health and control groups in total per parent annual cost of health and support services. However, costs were averted due to a 12% difference in non-use of social assistance in the previous 12 months for parents in the public health nursing group. This translates into an annual cost saving of 240,000 dollars (Canadian) of costs averted within 1 year for every 100 parents.
In the context of a system of national health and social insurance, this study supports the fact that it is no more costly to proactively service this population of parents on social assistance.
PubMed ID
11882101 View in PubMed
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[3-year follow-up of a child psychiatric cohort]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature78052
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 2007 Apr 2;169(14):1317-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2-2007
Author
Bilenberg Niels
Pedersen Dorthe
Author Affiliation
Odense Universitetshospital, Det Børne- og Ungdomspsykiatriske Hus. niels.bilenberg@ouh.fyns-amt.dk
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 2007 Apr 2;169(14):1317-21
Date
Apr-2-2007
Language
Danish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Child Behavior Disorders - diagnosis - therapy
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - classification - diagnosis - therapy
Parents
Prognosis
Questionnaires
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Publications on prospective follow-up studies of Danish child psychiatric cohorts are scarce. Such studies are necessary in order to be able to inform patients about the natural course and prognosis of child psychiatric disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Baseline data is obtained from 110 children, ie. 91 boys and 19 girls (4-13 years old) assessed in 2 child and adolescent psychiatric outpatient clinics in Denmark. As part of the baseline assessment, the children were clinically diagnosed and covered most of the child psychopathological spectrum. Baseline information included demographic data, assessment of symptom-load by means of The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and a global function score. The children in the cohort were assessed once a year using the CBCL and the Teachers Report Form (TRF). RESULTS: The symptom-load is declining, although still high during the follow-up period. The decline in total behaviour problem scores was greater in the group of children diagnosed with emotional and behavioural disorders compared to those with neuropsychiatric disorders (Attention deficits and Autism spectrum disorders). CONCLUSION: In spite of the relatively small sample size, this follow-up study identifies important issues of prognostic value in this clinical child psychiatric outpatient population. The material may be useful as a 'treatment as usual' group in future clinical outcome studies.
PubMed ID
17437695 View in PubMed
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A 4-year, cluster-randomized, controlled childhood obesity prevention study: STOPP.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature99038
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2009 Apr;33(4):408-17
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2009
Author
C. Marcus
G. Nyberg
A. Nordenfelt
M. Karpmyr
J. Kowalski
U. Ekelund
Author Affiliation
Division of Pediatrics, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, National Childhood Obesity Centre, Stockholm, Sweden. claude.marcus@ki.se
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2009 Apr;33(4):408-17
Date
Apr-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anthropometry
Child
Cluster analysis
Female
Health Promotion - organization & administration
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Obesity - epidemiology - prevention & control
Overweight - epidemiology - prevention & control
Parents - psychology
Physical Fitness - psychology
Prevalence
Risk Reduction Behavior
School Health Services
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of a school-based intervention programme to reduce the prevalence of overweight in 6 to 10-year-old children. DESIGN: Cluster-randomized, controlled study. SUBJECTS: A total of 3135 boys and girls in grades 1-4 were included in the study. METHODS: Ten schools were selected in Stockholm county area and randomized to intervention (n=5) and control (n=5) schools. Low-fat dairy products and whole-grain bread were promoted and all sweets and sweetened drinks were eliminated in intervention schools. Physical activity (PA) was aimed to increase by 30 min day(-1) during school time and sedentary behaviour restricted during after school care time. PA was measured by accelerometry. Eating habits at home were assessed by parental report. Eating disorders were evaluated by self-report. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity decreased by 3.2% (from 20.3 to 17.1) in intervention schools compared with an increase of 2.8% (from 16.1 to 18.9) in control schools (P
PubMed ID
19290010 View in PubMed
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A 5-year follow-up study of adolescents who sought treatment for substance misuse in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107628
Source
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014 May;23(5):347-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2014
Author
Sheilagh Hodgins
Sara Lövenhag
Mattias Rehn
Kent W Nilsson
Author Affiliation
Maria-Ungdom Research Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014 May;23(5):347-60
Date
May-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Antisocial Personality Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology
Comorbidity
Crime - psychology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Parents
Patient Acceptance of Health Care - statistics & numerical data
Poverty - statistics & numerical data
Prevalence
Residence Characteristics
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Substance Abuse Treatment Centers
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - psychology - therapy
Sweden - epidemiology
Urban Population
Violence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Previous studies have shown that substance misuse in adolescence is associated with increased risks of hospitalizations for mental and physical disorders, convictions for crimes, poverty, and premature death from age 21 to 50. The present study examined 180 adolescent boys and girls who sought treatment for substance misuse in Sweden. The adolescents and their parents were assessed independently when the adolescents first contacted the clinic to diagnose mental disorders and collect information on maltreatment and antisocial behavior. Official criminal files were obtained. Five years later, 147 of the ex-clients again completed similar assessments. The objectives were (1) to document the prevalence of alcohol use disorders (AUD) and drug use disorders (DUD) in early adulthood; and (2) to identify family and individual factors measured in adolescence that predicted these disorders, after taking account of AUD and DUD in adolescence and treatment. Results showed that AUD, DUD, and AUD + DUD present in mid-adolescence were in most cases also present in early adulthood. Prediction models detected no positive effect of treatment in limiting persistence of these disorders. Thus, treatment-as-usual provided by the only psychiatric service for adolescents with substance misuse in a large urban center in Sweden failed to prevent the persistence of substance misuse. Despite extensive clinical assessments of the ex-clients and their parents, few factors assessed in mid-adolescence were associated with substance misuse disorders 5 years later. It may be that family and individual factors in early life promote the mental disorders that precede adolescent substance misuse.
PubMed ID
23989597 View in PubMed
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A 5-year follow-up study of suicide attempts.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature46467
Source
Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1996 Mar;93(3):151-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1996
Author
E. Johnsson Fridell
A. Ojehagen
L. Träskman-Bendz
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, Lund University Hospital, Sweden.
Source
Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1996 Mar;93(3):151-7
Date
Mar-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adjustment Disorders - mortality - psychology - therapy
Adult
Anxiety Disorders - mortality - psychology - therapy
Cause of Death
Child of Impaired Parents - psychology
Depressive Disorder - mortality - psychology - therapy
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Patient Admission - statistics & numerical data
Personality Disorders - mortality - psychology - therapy
Recurrence
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Suicide - prevention & control - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Suicide, Attempted - prevention & control - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Seventy-five patients were admitted to the ward of the Lund Suicide Research Center following a suicide attempt. After 5 years, the patients were followed up by a personal semistructured interview covering sociodemographic, psychosocial and psychiatric areas. Ten patients (13%) had committed suicide during the follow-up period, the majority within 2 years. They tended to be older at the index attempt admission, and most of them had a mood disorder in comparison with the others. Two patients had died from somatic diseases. Forty-two patients were interviewed, of whom 17 (40%) had reattempted during the follow-up period, most of them within 3 years. Predictors for reattempt were young age, personality disorder, parents having received treatment for psychiatric disorder, and a poor social network. At the index attempt, none of the reattempters had diagnoses of adjustment disorders or anxiety disorders. At follow-up, reattempters had more psychiatric symptoms (SCL-90), and their overall functioning (GAF) was poor compared to those who did not reattempt. All of the reattempters had long-lasting treatment ( > 3 years) as compared to 56% of the others. It is of great clinical importance to focus on treatment strategies for the vulnerable subgroup of self-destructive reattempters.
PubMed ID
8739657 View in PubMed
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12-month prevalence of depression among single and married mothers in the 1994 National Population Health Survey.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature200239
Source
Can J Public Health. 1999 Sep-Oct;90(5):320-4
Publication Type
Article
Author
J. Cairney
C. Thorpe
J. Rietschlin
W R Avison
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Studies, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON.
Source
Can J Public Health. 1999 Sep-Oct;90(5):320-4
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Canada - epidemiology
Depressive Disorder - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Marital status
Middle Aged
Mothers - psychology
Multivariate Analysis
Odds Ratio
Prevalence
Single Parent - psychology
Abstract
While a number of studies have documented higher period prevalence rates of depression among single as compared to married mothers, all of the data have been based upon community surveys of mental illness. In Canada, all of the published work comes from Ontario. As a result, we do not know whether these results hold true for other regions of the country. Using a nationally representative sample, we find, consistent with previous work, that single mothers have almost double the 12-month prevalence rates of married mothers (15.4% versus 6.8%). As well, there are no significant differences in rates of depression between single and married mothers by region/province of the country. Our findings are compared with other epidemiologic data on the mental health of single mothers from Ontario.
PubMed ID
10570576 View in PubMed
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15-year-old tobacco and alcohol abstainers in a drier generation: Characteristics and lifestyle factors in a Norwegian cross-sectional sample.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300210
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2019 Jun; 47(4):439-445
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jun-2019
Author
Ingeborg Lund
Janne Scheffels
Author Affiliation
Department of Alcohol, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Tobacco and Drugs, Norway.
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2019 Jun; 47(4):439-445
Date
Jun-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Alcohol Abstinence - statistics & numerical data
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - psychology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Leisure Activities
Life Style
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Parent-Child Relations
Parenting - psychology
Risk factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Tobacco Use - epidemiology - psychology
Abstract
Norwegian adolescents currently drink and smoke less on average than previous cohorts. Based on cross-sectional survey data, the individual and familial characteristics of 15-year-old non-users and users of alcohol and tobacco were compared to identify correlates to abstinence.
The survey was approved by the Norwegian Social Science Service. The sample consisted of 3107 adolescents from a 2011 school-based survey, of which 848 (27.3%) did not drink alcohol nor use tobacco. Associations with leisure time activities, risk perceptions, parenting style and social factors were analysed by logistic regression.
Most of the non-drinkers were also non-users of tobacco. Abstainers (neither alcohol nor tobacco use) tended to have less unorganized and more hobby-related leisure time activities, higher risk perceptions for smoking, and monitoring or emotionally supportive parents. They more rarely reported close relationships with their best friend and were more likely to report lower occurrences of drinking and smoking among friends or siblings.
Differences in perceived parenting styles and a lower degree of unorganized leisure in the abstainer group points to monitoring and closer emotional ties between parents and children as important factors in adolescent abstinence. An implication of these results is that promoting hobby-based activities might be a useful strategy for preventing alcohol and tobacco use in young people.
PubMed ID
29671371 View in PubMed
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Abortion and neonaticide: ethics, practice, and policy in four nations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature58480
Source
Bioethics. 2002 Jun;16(3):202-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2002
Author
Michael L Gross
Author Affiliation
Department of Political Science, The University of Haifa, Mt. Carmel, Haifa, Israel. mgross@poli.haifa.ac.il
Source
Bioethics. 2002 Jun;16(3):202-30
Date
Jun-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abnormalities
Abortion, Eugenic
Abortion, Legal
Adult
Comparative Study
Decision Making
Denmark
Developed Countries
Ethical Analysis
Euthanasia, Passive
Female
Fetus
Great Britain
Health Care Rationing
Homicide
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Premature
Internationality
Israel
Parents
Personhood
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Trimester, Third
Public Policy
Quality of Life
Resuscitation
Social Values
United States
Value of Life
Withholding Treatment
Abstract
Abortion, particularly later-term abortion, and neonaticide, selective non-treatment of newborns, are feasible management strategies for fetuses or newborns diagnosed with severe abnormalities. However, policy varies considerably among developed nations. This article examines abortion and neonatal policy in four nations: Israel, the US, the UK and Denmark. In Israel, late-term abortion is permitted while non-treatment of newborns is prohibited. In the US, on the other hand, later-term abortion is severely restricted, while treatment to newborns may be withdrawn. Policy in the UK and Denmark bridges some of these gaps with liberal abortion and neonatal policy. Disparate policy within and between nations creates practical and ethical difficulties. Practice diverges from policy as many practitioners find it difficult to adhere to official policy. Ethically, it is difficult to entirely justify perinatal policy in these nations. In each nation, there are elements of ethically sound policy, while other aspects cannot be defended. Ethical policy hinges on two underlying normative issues: the question of fetal/newborn status and the morality of killing and letting die. While each issue has been the subject of extensive debate, there are firm ethical norms that should serve as the basis for coherent and consistent perinatal policy. These include 1) a grant of full moral and legal status to the newborn but only partial moral and legal status to the late-term fetus 2) a general prohibition against feticide unless to save the life of the mother or prevent the birth of a fetus facing certain death or severe pain or suffering and 3) a general endorsement of neonaticide subject to a parent's assessment of the newborn's interest broadly defined to consider physical harm as well as social, psychological and or financial harm to related third parties. Policies in each of the nations surveyed diverging from these norms should be the subject of public discourse and, where possible, legislative reform.
PubMed ID
12211246 View in PubMed
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