Estrogens have an important role in the development and progression of breast cancer. 17beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17HSD1), type 2 (17HSD2), and type 5 (17HSD5) are associated with sex steroid metabolism in normal and cancerous breast tissue. The mRNA expressions of the 17HSD1, 17HSD2, and 17HSD5 enzymes were analyzed in 794 breast carcinoma specimens by using tissue microarrays and normal histologic sections. The results were correlated with the estrogen receptor alpha (ER-alpha) and beta (ER-beta), progesterone receptor, Ki67, and c-erbB-2 expressions analyzed by immunohistochemical techniques and with the Tumor-Node-Metastasis classification, tumor grade, disease-free interval, and survival of the patients. Signals for 17HSD1 mRNA were detected in 16%, 17HSD2 in 25%, and 17HSD5 in 65% of the breast cancer specimens. No association between the 17HSD1, 17HSD2, and 17HSD5 expressions was detected. A significant association was observed between ER-alpha and ER-beta (P = 0.02; odds ratio, 1.96) expressions. There was also a significant inverse association between ER-alpha and 17HSD1 (P = 0.04; odds ratio, 0.53), as well as ER-alpha and 17HSD5 (P = 0.001; odds ratio, 0.35). Patients with tumors expressing 17HSD1 mRNA or protein had significantly shorter overall and disease-free survival than the other patients (P = 0.0010 and 0.0134, log rank). The expression of 17HSD5 was significantly higher in breast tumor specimens than in normal tissue (P = 0.033; odds ratio, 5.56). The group with 17HSD5 overexpression had a worse prognosis than the other patients (P = 0.0146). ER-alpha also associated with survival (P = 0.045). Cox multivariate analyses showed that 17HSD1 mRNA, tumor size, and ER-alpha had independent prognostic significance.
To test whether academic centers (ACs) are more successful than nonacademic centers (NACs) in immunohistochemistry (IHC) external quality assessment challenges in the Canadian Immunohistochemistry Quality Control (CIQC) program.
Results of 9 CIQC challenges for breast cancer marker (BM) and various non-breast cancer marker (NBM) tests were examined. Success rates were compared between AC/NAC laboratories and those located in small or large cities. Performance was also correlated with annual IHC case volumes.
There was no statistically significant difference in performance in any of the comparisons. However, overall performance on BM was significantly better (P
The occurrence of abnormal nuclear DNA content in major salivary gland adenomas is not well known and its correlation with tumor recurrence has not been documented previously. From 1987 to 1991, 119 consecutive major salivary gland adenomas were operated on at Turku University Central Hospital. These tumors were analyzed by flow cytometry and 100 (84%) were found to be diploid, 12 (10%) near-diploid and 7 (6%) aneuploid with DNA indexes > 1.15. The mean proliferation rate measured as a percentage of cells in the S-phase fraction was 2.5 +/- 1.6%. The histological slides were then blindly reclassified according to current World Health Organization classification. As a result histological classification was changed in 3 tumors: malignant cells were found in 2 aneuploid tumors and 1 diploid neoplasm. Preoperative cytological fine-needle aspiration biopsy had been considered as possibly malignant in 2 of these cases. Among all case material 10 specimens were recurrent tumors; although the tendency to recur depended on the extent and adequacy of the surgery performed, multiple recurrences were associated with non-diploid tumors.
This study aimed to perform an integrative genetic analysis of patients with matched serous ovarian cancer having long-term or short-term survival using formalin fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples.
All patients with serous ovarian carcinoma who underwent surgery between 1998 and 2007 at the Department of Gynaecology, Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden were considered. From this cohort, we selected biomaterial from 2 groups of patients with long-term and short-term survival matched for age, stage, histologic grade, and outcome of surgery. Genomic DNA from FFPE sample was analyzed with SNP array and targeted next-generation sequencing of 26 genes.
Forty-three samples (primary tumors and metastases) from 23 patients were selected for genomic profiling, the survival in the subgroups were 134 and 36 months, respectively. We observed a tendency toward increased genomic instability in those with long-term survival with higher proportion of somatic copy number alterations (P = 0.083) and higher average ploidy (P = 0.037). TP53 mutations were found in 50% of the patients. Frequency of TP53 mutations did not differ between the survival groups (P = 0.629).
We validated both previous genomic findings in ovarian cancer and the proposed association between increased genomic instability and better survival. These results exemplify that analysis of genomic biomarkers is feasible on archived FFPE tissue.
University of Hohenheim, Institute of Food Chemistry (170b), Garbenstraße 28, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany; European Union Reference Laboratory (EU-RL) for PCBs and Dioxins in Feed and Food, Bissierstraße 5, 79114 Freiburg, Germany.
For decades, high quantities of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCP) and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCP) have been widely used, for instance as plasticizers or flame retardants, leading to global pollution due to unintentional emissions from products or waste. Due to the high complexity of chlorinated paraffins with several thousand congeners there is no consensus on an analytical procedure for SCCPs and MCCPs in food samples. Amongst the multitude of methods currently in use, high-resolution mass spectrometry is particularly valuable for in-depth studies of homologue patterns. Here we analyse SCCPs and MCCPs with gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry (GC-Orbitrap-HRMS) operated in full-scan acquisition in electron capture negative ion (ECNI) mode at 60,000 and 120,000 resolution (FWHM, m/z 200, equals roughly 30,000 and 60,000 at 5% peak height). Linear dynamic range, selectivity and sensitivity tests confirmed an excellent linearity in a concentration range of 25-15,000?pg/µL with very low limits of detection (LODs) in the low pg/µL range. Spiking experiments with high levels of native mono- and di-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mixtures of MCCP and SCCP standards did not have a negative impact on isotope ratios of the examined homologues. Besides the [M-Cl]- fragment ions used for quantification, the mass spectra of homologues also featured [M-HCl]- ions whose abundance increased with decreasing chlorination degree. In addition, [M-HCl-Cl]- ions were detected with a relative abundance of 5-10%. Three salmon (Salmo salar) samples farmed in Norway showed a consistent CP homologue pattern which differed both from the CP pattern in a sample from Scottish aquaculture and a wild salmon sample. These measurements produce evidence that discretely different CP patterns may exist in different areas of origin. Our results demonstrate that GC/ECNI-Orbitrap-HRMS is well-suited for the analysis of CPs by overcoming a range of mass interference problems and due to its thus far unmatched sensitivity.
Short-, medium-, and long-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs) were analyzed in human milk from the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and Scandinavia. Individual samples were collected from Shanghai, Jiaxing, and Shaoxing (China), Stockholm (Sweden), and Bodø (Norway) between 2010 and 2016. Mean concentrations (range) of SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs in samples from the YRD were 124 [
Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are large production volume chemicals used in a wide variety of commercial applications. They are ubiquitous in the environment and humans. Human exposure via the indoor environment has, however, been barely investigated. In the present study 44 indoor air and six dust samples from apartments in Stockholm, Sweden, were analyzed for CPs, and indoor air concentrations are reported for the first time. The sumCP concentration (short chain CPs (SCCPs) and medium chain CPs (MCCPs)) in air ranged from
PURPOSE: A multitude of breast cancer mRNA profiling studies has stratified breast cancer and defined gene sets that correlate with outcome. However, the number of genes used to predict patient outcome or define tumor subtypes by RNA expression studies is variable, nonoverlapping, and generally requires specialized technologies that are beyond those used in the routine pathology laboratory. It would be ideal if the familiarity and streamlined nature of immunohistochemistry could be combined with the rigorously quantitative and highly specific properties of nucleic acid-based analysis to predict patient outcome. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We have used AQUA-based objective quantitative analysis of tissue microarrays toward the goal of discovery of a minimal number of markers with maximal prognostic or predictive value that can be applied to the conventional formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue section. RESULTS: The minimal discovered multiplexed set of tissue biomarkers was GATA3, NAT1, and estrogen receptor. Genetic algorithms were then applied after division of our cohort into a training set of 223 breast cancer patients to discover a prospectively applicable solution that can define a subset of patients with 5-year survival of 96%. This algorithm was then validated on an internal validation set (n=223, 5-year survival=95.8%) and further validated on an independent cohort from Sweden, which showed 5-year survival of 92.7% (n=149). CONCLUSIONS: With further validation, this test has both the familiarity and specificity for widespread use in management of breast cancer. More generally, this work illustrates the potential for multiplexed biomarker discovery on the tissue microarray platform.
BACKGROUND: To analyze the distribution pattern of claudins 1, 4, 5, 7 and occludin in benign and malignant ameloblastomas and developing human teeth. METHODS: Paraffin-embedded tissue specimens of 25 benign and four malignant ameloblastomas and two developing human teeth were examined immunohistochemically using antibodies against claudins 1, 4, 5, 7 and occludin. RESULTS: In ameloblastomas strongest expression was seen for claudins 1 and 7 while claudin 4 was expressed less frequently. Claudin 5 and occludin were seen only in a minority of cases. There were no evident differences in the expression of claudins or occludin neither between different histologic subtypes of ameloblastomas nor between benign or malignant cases. The strongest expression for claudins was present in the central stellatum reticulum-like cells surrounding the microcysts and in the areas with squamous differentiation of the ameloblastomas. In developing teeth both claudin 1 and 7 stained strongly in the enamel epithelium, ameloblasts, and enamel matrix, but staining for claudin 4 was relatively weak. Claudin 5 was preferentially expressed only in vessels, and occludin staining ranged from negative to weak in ameloblastomas and teeth germs. CONCLUSION: There were no clear differences in the expression levels between benign and malignant ameloblastic tumors. The overexpression of claudins in the areas with microcyst formation may indicate their attempt to maintain the interepithelial cohesion of the cells. The strong immunoreactivity of ameloblasts and newly synthesized enamel matrix for claudins 1 and 7 indicates that they may be involved in cell signaling influencing enamel formation.
Biobanks containing formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue, as well as frozen serum or plasma, are important resources for molecular epidemiologic studies. However, few studies have compared the reliability of formalin-fixed tissue samples and archival plasma samples for genotyping. We determined the genotype of four proposed genetic risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma [hereditary hemochromatosis (HFE 63 and 282), alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency (AAT 342) and cystic fibrosis (CFTR 508)] on formalin-fixed tissue samples, stored for up to 25 years, from 318 patients diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma and on plasma or serum samples from 31 of these patients. The genotypes were analyzed by RFLP or allele-specific amplification as well as by TaqMan assays. In addition, genotyping was attempted after whole genome amplification by multiple displacement amplification (MDA). Genotyping was successful in 94% of the tissue samples and successful and identical to the tissue samples from the same subjects in 98% of the plasma/serum samples. DNA from plasma samples could be amplified >5,000-fold by MDA and genotyping after MDA gave identical results to the genotyping of the same subjects before whole genome amplification. MDA amplification of the tissue samples was not successful. In summary, archival plasma was found to be an adequate source of efficiently amplifiable DNA. MDA on plasma samples allows analysis of multiple genotypes in epidemiologic studies.