Oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infection prevalence is required to determine optimal vaccination strategies. We systematically reviewed the prevalence of oncogenic cervical HPV infection among Canadian females prior to immunization.
We included studies reporting DNA-confirmed oncogenic HPV prevalence estimates among Canadian females identified through searching electronic databases (e.g., MEDLINE) and public health websites. Two independent reviewers screened literature results, abstracted data and appraised study quality. Prevalence estimates were meta-analyzed among routine screening populations, HPV-positive, and by cytology/histology results.
Thirty studies plus 21 companion reports were included after screening 837 citations and 120 full-text articles. Many of the studies did not address non-response bias (74%) or use a representative sampling strategy (53%). Age-specific prevalence was highest among females aged
Cites: J Immigr Minor Health. 2007 Oct;9(4):323-3417345152
Reducing the number of doses in the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination regimen from 3 to 2 could increase coverage rates. In this cohort study, we assessed the risk of genital warts (GWs) according to timing and number of doses of quadrivalent HPV vaccine.
From population-based registries, we identified all girls in Denmark born during 1985-1999, for whom information on HPV vaccinations was retrieved. The cohort was followed for GW occurrence during 2006-2012. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated by Poisson regression to determine differences in GW rates by number of vaccine doses.
Of the 550,690 girls in the cohort, 361 734 had been vaccinated. Of these, 25.9% had been vaccinated twice and 58.8% 3 times. The risk of GWs decreased significantly with each additional dose of vaccine. For girls who received 2 doses, extension of the interval between doses reduced the incidence of GWs. In comparison with a 2-month interval, the incidence of GWs was reduced by 45% (95% confidence interval [CI], 20%-62%), 55% (95% CI, 35%-69%), and 63% (95% CI, 44%-75%), with an interval of 4, 5, and 6 months, respectively. The IRR of 2 vs 3 doses was close to 1, with an interval of about 6 months between the first 2 doses.
With the original vaccine schedule, completion of 3 doses seems to be required to obtain full protection against GWs. A 2-dose regimen may be as effective if the dosing interval is extended to around 6 months, although the long-term effectiveness of this regimen is unknown.
We studied effectiveness of the AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 (AS04-HPV-16/18) vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) oropharyngeal infections associated with the increase of head/neck cancers in western countries. All 38,631 resident adolescents from 1994 to 1995 birth cohorts of 33 Finnish communities were invited in this community-randomized trial (NCT00534638). During 2008-2009, 11,275 girls and 6,129 boys were enrolled in three arms of 11 communities each. In Arm A, 90% of vaccinated girls/boys, and in Arm B, 90% of vaccinated girls received AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine. Other Arm A/B and all Arm C vaccinated participants received control vaccine. All Arm A participants and Arm B female participants were blinded to vaccine allocation. Oropharyngeal samples were analyzed from 4,871 18.5-year-old females who attended follow-up visit 3-6?years postvaccination. HPV DNA prevalence was determined by SPF-10 LiPA and Multiplex type-specific PCR. Total vaccine effectiveness (VE) was defined as relative reduction of oropharyngeal HPV prevalence in pooled Arms A/B HPV-vaccinated females vs. all Arm C females. VE against oropharyngeal HPV-16/18, HPV-31/45 and HPV-31/33/45 infections were 82.4% (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 47.3-94.1), 75.3% (95%CI: 12.7-93.0) and 69.9% (95% CI: 29.6-87.1), respectively. In conclusion, the AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine showed effectiveness against vaccine and nonvaccine HPV-types oropharyngeal infections in adolescent females up to 6?years postvaccination.
More than 90% of genital warts (GW) cases are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6 and 11. The introduction of HPV vaccines necessitates the estimation of the population-based incidence of GW immediately before and after vaccination uptake.
Incidence proportions were calculated using the entire population aged 10–44 years living in Sweden during 2006–2010. The Prescribed Drug Register and the National Patient Register were used to define GW episodes. Time trends were estimated using Poisson regression.
In 2010, age-stratified incidence proportions of GW were highest for 20-year-old women (956 cases/100 000), while the incidence proportion among males was greatest at the slightly older age of 24 years (1137 cases/100 000). Crude rates were marginally higher among males than among females during 2006–2007 and appeared to later diverge. Between 2008 and 2010, the overall incidence appeared to increase among males, and the incidence among females declined. Females aged 17 and 18 years had a >25% decline in GW rates between 2006 and 2010, with significant decreases through the age of 25 years.
This study provides a reasonable estimation of the incidence of GW in the Swedish population by use of register data, with results comparable to those from previous smaller studies. There was a downward trend of GW incidence among younger females between 2006 and 2010.
Oncogenic non-vaccine human papillomavirus (HPV) types may conceivably fill the vacated ecological niche of the vaccine types. The likelihood of this may differ by the risk of acquiring HPV infections. We examined occurrence of HPV types among vaccinated and unvaccinated subgroups of 1992-1994 birth cohorts with differing acquisition risks up to 9 years post-implementation of HPV vaccination in 33 Finnish communities randomized to: Arm A (gender-neutral HPV16/18 vaccination), Arm B (girls-only HPV16/18 vaccination and hepatitis B-virus (HBV) vaccination of boys), and Arm C (gender-neutral HBV vaccination). Out of 1992-1994 born resident boys (31,117) and girls (30,139), 8,618 boys and 15,615 girls were vaccinated, respectively, with 20-30% and 50% coverage in 2007-2009. In 2010-2013, 8,868 HPV16/18 and non-HPV vaccinated females, and in 2014-2016, 5,574 originally or later (2010-2013) HPV16/18 vaccinated females attended two cervical sampling visits, aged 18.5 and 22-years. The samples were typed for HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/35/39/45/51/52/56/58/59/66/68 using PCR followed by MALDI-TOF MS. HPV prevalence ratios (PR) between Arms A/B vs. C were calculated for Chlamydia trachomatis positives (core-group), and negatives (general population minus core group). At both visits the vaccine-protected HPV type PRs did not significantly differ between the core-group and non-core group. Among the vaccinated 18-year-olds, HPV51 occurrence was overall somewhat increased (PRcore = 1.4, PRnon-core. = 1.4) whereas the HPV52 occurrence was increased in the core-group only (PRcore = 2.5, PRnon-core = 0.8). Among the non-HPV vaccinated 18-year-olds, the HPV51/52 PRs were higher in the core-group (PRcore = 3.8/1.8, PRnon-core = 1.2/1.1). The 22-year-olds yielded no corresponding observations. Monitoring of the sexual risk-taking core-group may detect early tendencies for HPV type replacement.
Bivalent and quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are now licensed in several countries. Furthermore, clinical trials examining the efficacy of a nonavalent vaccine are underway. We aimed to compare the potential population-level effectiveness of the bivalent, quadrivalent, and candidate nonavalent HPV vaccines.
We developed an individual-based, transmission-dynamic model of HPV infection and disease in a population stratified by age, gender, sexual activity, and screening behavior. The model was calibrated to highly stratified sexual behavior, HPV epidemiology, and cervical screening data from Canada.
Under base case assumptions, vaccinating 12-year-old girls (70% coverage) with the bivalent (quadrivalent) vaccine is predicted to reduce the cumulative incidence of anogenital warts (AGWs) by 0.0% (72.1%), diagnosed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia lesions 2 and 3 (CIN2 and -3) by 51.0% (46.1%), and cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) by 31.9% (30.5%), over 70 years. Changing from a bivalent (quadrivalent) to a nonavalent vaccine is predicted to reduce the cumulative number of AGW episodes by an additional 66.7% (0.0%), CIN2 and -3 episodes by an additional 9.3% (12.5%), and SCC cases by an additional 4.8% (6.6%) over 70 years. Differences in predicted population-level effectiveness between the vaccines were most sensitive to duration of protection and the time horizon of analysis. The vaccines produced similar effectiveness at preventing noncervical HPV-related cancers.
The bivalent vaccine is expected to be slightly more effective at preventing CIN2 and -3 and SCC in the longer term, whereas the quadrivalent vaccine is expected to substantially reduce AGW cases shortly after the start of vaccination programs. Switching to a nonavalent vaccine has the potential to further reduce precancerous lesions and cervical cancer.
Comment In: J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012 Nov 21;104(22):1698-70123104325
Comment In: J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013 May 1;105(9):664; discussion 665-623503601
Comment In: J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013 May 1;105(9):664-523767055
Gardasil, a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, began among grade 6 girls in Manitoba, Canada in 2008. In Manitoba, there is evidence that First Nations, Métis, and Inuit women (FNMI) have higher HPV prevalence, lower invasive cervical cancer (ICC) screening, and higher ICC incidence than all other Manitoban (AOM) women. We developed a mathematical model to assess the plausible impact of unequal vaccination coverage among school girls on future cervical cancer incidence.
We fit model estimated HPV prevalence and ICC incidence to corresponding empirical estimates. We used the fitted model to evaluate the impact of varying levels of vaccination uptake by FNMI status on future ICC incidence, assuming cervical screening uptake among FNMI and AOM women remained unchanged.
Depending on vaccination coverage, estimated ICC incidence by 2059 ranged from 15% to 68% lower than if there were no vaccination. The level of cross-ethnic sexual mixing influenced the impact that vaccination rates among FNMI has on ICC incidence among AOM, and vice versa. The same level of AOM vaccination could result in ICC incidence that differs by up to 10%, depending on the level of FNMI vaccination. Similarly, the same level of FNMI vaccination could result in ICC incidence that differs by almost 40%, depending on the level of AOM vaccination.
If we are unable to equalize vaccination uptake among all school girls, policy makers should prepare for higher levels of cervical cancer than would occur under equal vaccination uptake.
We have performed a serological survey of HPV type 16-antibody prevalence by age and sex in Sweden and used it as a basis for modelling the optimal vaccination strategies in this population. Samples of 3,317 subjects were tested for HPV16-specific antibodies. The observed age-specific seroprevalences along with sexual behaviour data were used to infer parameter values for a mathematical model representing Sweden and the preventive effect of possible strategies estimated. By the year 2055, vaccination of females starting at age 12 in 2008 was most efficient, estimated to prevent 5.8 million cumulative HPV16 infections. Catch-up programs had a strong additional preventive effect. Vaccination also targeting males increased protective effect by about 4%, but had lower preventive effect per vaccination given. Addition of an HPV serosurvey to existing models and data has enabled us to estimate effect of different vaccination strategies, optimized to the HPV epidemiology in our population.