Structured diagnostic inter- views include items that evaluate physical etiologies for mood and anxiety disorders. The objective of this article was to assess the impact of such items.
A mental health survey in Canada collected data from n = 36,984 household residents. The lifetime prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders was calculated with and without exclusions due to physical causes.
Approximately 10% of subjects with a lifetime depressive disorder reported that all of their episodes were due to one or more physical cause. Many of the reported etiologies were implausible given the DSM-IV requirement that the disturbance be a "direct physiological consequence" of the physical cause. The results were similar for manic episodes and anxiety disorders.
Structured diagnostic interviews assess physical etiologies in ways that are subject to inconsistency and inaccuracy. Physical etiology items may bias estimates by introducing etiological opinions into the assessment of disorder frequency.
Prior studies have shown that anxiety sensitivity (AS) plays an important role in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate associations between empirically supported PTSD symptom clusters (i.e. reexperiencing, avoidance, numbing, hyperarousal) and AS dimensions (i.e. psychological concerns, social concerns, somatic concerns). Participants were 138 active-duty police officers (70.7% female; mean age = 38.9 years; mean time policing = 173.8 months) who, as a part of a larger study, completed measures of trauma exposure, PTSD symptoms, AS, and depressive symptoms. All participants reported experiencing at least one event that they perceived as traumatic, and 44 (31.9%) screened positive for PTSD. Officers with probable PTSD scored significantly higher on AS total as well as the somatic and psychological concerns dimensional scores than did those without PTSD. As well, a higher percentage of officers with probable PTSD scored positively on the AS-derived Brief Screen for Panic Disorder (Apfeldorf et al., 1994) compared with those without PTSD. A series of regression analyses revealed that depressive symptoms, number of reported traumas, and AS somatic concerns were significant predictors of PTSD total symptom severity as well as severity of reexperiencing. Avoidance was predicted by depressive symptoms and AS somatic concerns. Only depressive symptoms were significantly predictive of numbing and hyperarousal cluster scores. These findings contribute to understanding the nature of association between AS and PTSD symptom clusters. Implications for the treatment of individuals having PTSD with and without panic-related symptomatology are discussed.
Comorbid mood and anxiety disorders are commonly seen in clinical practice. The goal of this article is to review the available literature on the epidemiologic, etiologic, clinical, and management aspects of this comorbidity and formulate a set of evidence- and consensus-based recommendations. This article is part of a set of Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) Comorbidity Task Force papers.
We conducted a PubMed search of all English-language articles published between January 1966 and November 2010. The search terms were bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder, cross-referenced with anxiety disorders/symptoms, panic disorder, agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Levels of evidence for specific interventions were assigned based on a priori determined criteria, and recommendations were developed by integrating the level of evidence and clinical opinion of the authors.
Comorbid anxiety symptoms and disorders have a significant impact on the clinical presentation and treatment approach for patients with mood disorders. A set of recommendations are provided for the management of bipolar disorder (BD) with comorbid anxiety and major depressive disorder (MDD) with comorbid anxiety with a focus on comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder, use of cognitive-behavioral therapy across mood and anxiety disorders, and youth with mood and anxiety disorders.
Careful attention should be given to correctly identifying anxiety comorbidities in patients with BD or MDD. Consideration of evidence- or consensus-based treatment recommendations for the management of both mood and anxiety symptoms is warranted.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural group treatment of panic disorder and agoraphobia in a clinical setting. Fifty-three patients were offered treatment and assessed before, after and at follow-up 1 1/2-2 years after treatment. The study included an informal waiting-list control group of 40 patients. The investigation group achieved better outcome on most analyses with 47.2% found to be panic-free after treatment compared with 12.5% in the control group. Treatment gains were durable with 66.7% without panic attacks at follow-up. Most patients, however, still had major psychological problems after treatment. The outcomes of cognitive-behavioural group treatment of panic disorder in this study were modest compared with most controlled studies, possibly due to an unselected patient group with a high degree of agoraphobia.
Comment In: Nord J Psychiatry. 2005;59(3):16516195115
The present study evaluated the main and interactive effects of level of smoking (cigarettes per day) and anxiety sensitivity (fear of anxiety and anxiety related sensations) in predicting panic and anxiety variables in an epidemiologically-defined sample of smokers from Moscow (n=95). The combination of high levels of anxiety sensitivity and smoking predicted agoraphobic avoidance, but not frequency of panic attacks during the past week. These findings suggest anxiety sensitivity may moderate the relation between level of smoking and prototypical panic psychopathology variables (panic attacks and agoraphobic avoidance) even after controlling for the theoretically-relevant factors of alcohol abuse and negative affect.
Several models for predicting mortality have been developed for patients with burns, and the most commonly used are based on age and total body surface area (TBSA%). They often show good predictive precision as depicted by high values for area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC). However the effect of coexisting morbidity on such prediction models has not to our knowledge been thoroughly examined. We hypothesised that adding it to a previously published model (based on age, TBSA%, full thickness burns, gender, and need for mechanical ventilation) would further improve its predictive power.
We studied 772 patients admitted during the period 1997-2008 to the Linköping University Hospital, National Burn Centre with any type of burns. We defined coexisting morbidity as any of the medical conditions listed in the Charlson list, as well as psychiatric disorders or drug or alcohol misuse. We added coexisting medical conditions to the model for predicting mortality (age, TBSA%, and need for mechanical ventilation) to determine whether it improved the model as assessed by changes in deviances between the models.
Mean (SD) age and TBSA% was 35 (26) years and 13 (17) %, respectively. Among 725 patients who survived, 105 (14%) had one or more coexisting condition, compared with 28 (60%) among those 47 who died. The presence of coexisting conditions increased with age (p
The use of specialised psychiatric services for depression and anxiety has increased steadily among young people in Sweden during recent years. It is not known to what extent this service use is due to an increase in psychiatric morbidity, or whether other adversities explain these trends. The aim of this study is to examine if there is increased use of psychiatric services among young adults in Sweden between 2000 and 2010, and if so, to what extent this increase is associated with differences in depression, anxiety and negative life events.
This is a repeated cross-sectional study of 20-30-year old men and women in Stockholm County in 2000 and 2010 (n = 2590 and n = 1120). Log-binomial regression analyses were conducted to compare the prevalence of service use, depression and panic disorder between the two cohorts. Self-reported life events were entered individually and as a summary index, and entered as potential mediators. Different effects of life events on service use were examined through interaction analysis. We report prevalence proportion ratios (PPR) with 95% confidence intervals.
Specialised psychiatric service use, but also depression and panic disorder was more common in the younger cohort (current service use 2.4 and 5.0%). The younger cohort did not report more life events overall or among those with depression or anxiety. Neither depression, panic disorder nor life events could explain the increased use of psychiatric services in the younger cohort (Fully adjusted model PPR = 1.70, 1.20-2.40 95% CI). There was no significant interaction between cohort and life events in predicting psychiatric service use.
This study provides initial support for an increase in service use among young adults compared with 10 years earlier. The increased service use cannot be explained with increasing worse life situations.
This study investigates the associations between migraine on the one hand and lifetime major depression, lifetime panic disorder, and neuroticism evaluated using the Swedish universities Scales of Personality on the other. A neurologist clinically assessed 728 women aged 40-74 years attending a population-based mammography screening programme. The associations between lifetime migraine and personality traits and psychiatric disorders were insignificant in multivariable analysis. However, in old women (60-74 years) the risk for active migraine was strongly associated with a history of major depression and high levels of stress susceptibility and somatic trait anxiety. Furthermore, in old women, high levels of stress susceptibility and somatic trait anxiety were associated with low ratings of migraine pain intensity and lower levels of these traits with high ratings after controlling for disability during migraines, whereas there were only small differences in middle-aged women. The results suggest that certain aspects of neuroticism are important mental correlates of the ability of old women to endure migraine pain.
OBJECTIVE: A polymorphism in the promoter region of the NPY gene at position -399 C > T was recently reported to be associated with schizophrenia in a Japanese population and with treatment refractory unipolar depression in a Swedish population. The objective of this study was to investigate potential associations between the polymorphism and three psychiatric disorders in a Danish population. METHOD: We investigated the occurrence of the polymorphism in patients with schizophrenia (n = 291), unipolar depression (n = 256) and panic disorder (n = 142) compared with controls (n = 716). RESULTS: We detected the polymorphism -399 C > T at a frequency of 48% in controls. No significant differences were found between genotype or allele frequencies in controls vs. the patient groups. CONCLUSION: The lack of association between the -399 C > T polymorphism and schizophrenia, unipolar depression or panic disorder, respectively, suggests that the polymorphism is not involved in the etiology of these disorders in the Danish population.
To examine factors influencing obtaining a driver's license and subsequent prognosis among people with epilepsy vs control subjects.
Eighty-one patients from a population-based cohort with childhood-onset epilepsy, followed prospectively for 45 years, and 96 general population control subjects were compared with regard to driving licensing, seizure relapses, and accidents.
By the end of the follow-up period, all 81 subjects had achieved at least one 2-year seizure-free interval in adulthood and were eligible for a driver's license. Of these, 64 vs 90% of control subjects had obtained a license (p