During the ten year period from 1980 to 1989, 51 patients were treated at Oulu University Central Hospital for fulminant acute pancreatitis. Five were in a moribund state on admission and died shortly afterwards, 6 were treated conservatively and survived, and 40 were operated on, 17 by primary pancreatic resection and 23 by debridement of the peripancreatic area. Mortality rates were 53 per cent for the resection group and for the debridement group 22 per cent. Reoperations were performed in 24 per cent of patients in the pancreatic resection group and in 60 per cent of those in the debridement group. The high mortality rate associated with primary pancreatic resection has caused us to adopt a more conservative strategy, and surgical treatment is directed towards later complications of this severe disease.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor-induced acute pancreatitis has been described in various case reports and drug surveillance databases. At present, no epidemiologic studies examining the potential association between ACE inhibitors and acute pancreatitis have been identified.
To determine whether there is an association between ACE inhibitor use and pancreatic events (acute pancreatitis, pancreatic surgery).
A retrospective cohort of Ontario residents aged >/=66 years was created using population-based administrative databases from January 1, 1994, through March 31, 2000. We compared the incidence of pancreatic events among new users of ACE inhibitors (study group), warfarin (null baseline group), and dihydropyridine calcium-channel antagonists (DCCAs; disease control group) using multivariate Cox proportional hazard models.
The primary outcome measure was hospitalization with acute pancreatitis; the secondary outcome measure was incidence of pancreatic surgery.
For acute pancreatitis, the crude incidence rates per 10,000 person-years were 9.0 for the ACE inhibitor group (n = 174,824); 7.1 for the DCCA group (n = 73,719), and 7.6 for the warfarin group (n = 40 057). Relative to warfarin users, neither ACE inhibitor users (adjusted rate ratio [aRR] = 1.35; 95% CI 0.94 to 1.93) nor DCCA users (aRR = 1.09; 95% CI 0.72 to 1.62) were at significantly higher risk of hospitalization for acute pancreatitis. For pancreatic surgery in the same population, the crude incidence rates per 10,000 person-years were 10.5 for the ACE inhibitor group, 10.6 for the DCCA group, and 10.7 for the warfarin group. Relative to subjects taking warfarin, neither ACE inhibitor users (aRR = 1.09; 95% CI 0.80 to 4.49) nor DCCA users (aRR = 1.11; 95% CI 0.79 to 1.56) were at significantly higher risk for pancreatic surgery.
The use of ACE inhibitors does not appear to be associated with significant risk of acute pancreatitis among the elderly.
By use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay we established serum reference values of carboxylic ester hydrolase, a pancreatic secretory lipolytic enzyme, and explored to see if a raised serum level is indicative of acute pancreatitis. Postoperative elevation of carboxylic ester hydrolase was observed in seven out of ten patients who underwent pancreatic surgery. Serum levels of carboxylic ester hydrolase and amylase were determined in 129 patients admitted due to abdominal emergency conditions. Amylase was elevated in 27 patients, and in 20 of these raised carboxylic ester hydrolase levels affirmed the diagnosis acute pancreatitis. In five out of the seven patients with elevated amylase alone no etiologic factor of acute pancreatitis was found. Another 11 patients had raised carboxylic ester hydrolase levels without concomitant elevation of amylase. In all these patients, a likely cause of pancreatic inflammation was identifiable. Hence, a raised carboxylic ester hydrolase level, even in presence of normal amylase, could be indicative of acute pancreatic inflammation.
The author offered an algorithm of definition of optimal ways of pancreaticodigestive fistula formation in pancreaticoduodenal resection. It is based on the following factors such as tissue conditions of the pancreas gland stump, a diameter of pancreatic duct and compliance with cut dimensions of gland stump of anastomotic loop of the jejunum. A comparative analysis of pancreaticodigestive fistulas performance was made in 2 groups. An algorithm of choice of pancreaticodigestive anastomosis was applied in the main group (n = 35). An inconsistency of pancreaticodigestive fistula was noted in the main group (5.7%) and in the comparative group (n = 59)--17% (p = 0.205). There weren't any cases of destructive pancreatitis and lethality, which were directly specified by pancreaticodigestive anastomosis in the main group. Destructive pacreatitis developed in 10.1% cases in the comparative group. The lethality consisted of 5.1%. The results obtained confirmed the efficacy of individualized approach to formation of pancreaticodigestive fistulas and showed the practical value of investigation in this way.
Data concerning the incidence and treatment of pancreatic fistula after necrosectomy in severe acute necrotizing pancreatitis (SAP) are scarce. Our aim was to assess the incidence of pancreatic fistula, and the feasibility and results of endoscopic transpapillary stenting (ETS) in patients with SAP after necrosectomy.
From January 2009 to December 2012 twenty-nine consecutive patients with SAP and necrosectomy in Oulu University Hospital were enrolled into this study. Five patients died before ETS because of the rapid progress of the disease and were, therefore, excluded.
ERP was performed for the remaining 24 patients demonstrating fistula in 22/24 patients (92 %). ETS was successful in 23 patients and the fistula closed in all of them after a median of 82 (2-210) days with acceptable morbidity and no procedure-related mortality.
All patients after necrosectomy for SAP seem to have internal or external pancreatic fistula. EST aimed at internal drainage of the necrosectomy cavity is a feasible and effective therapy in these patients.
The functioning part of parenchyma, isolated from the organ and its duct system due to the presence of pancreatitis or injury is the source filling the pseudocyst cavity and the cause which supports the pancreatic fistula existence. Possibility of pancreatic pseudocyst simulation in experiment on dogs was proved. An experimental cyst cavity decompression was done with the help of the tunnel conducted via papilla between the cyst and the main duct.
To study the effect of hospital volume and surgeon volume on postoperative hospital mortality, morbidity and long-term survival after resection of the head of the pancreas in a nationwide study (case record study), taking into a consideration risk factors found important in series based on experience in one hospital.
The case record investigation of 374 patients identified from the National Hospital Discharge Database as having undergone resection of the head of the pancreas between 1990 and 1994 in Finland.
The records of 350 patients were obtained for analysis. Operations were performed in 33 hospitals by 98 surgeons (average 2.1/year/hospital and 0.7/year/surgeon). Hospital mortality was 36/350 (10%), increasing from 4 and 7 to 13% with decreasing hospital volume from > 10 and 5-10 to 3 and 1-3 to