Socioemotional selectivity theory postulates that, as people age, they prioritize emotionally meaningful goals. This study investigated whether these age differences in goals are reflected in how younger (aged 18-36, n = 111) and older adults (aged 62-86, n = 104) evaluated, remembered information from and were persuaded by health messages.
Participants were randomly assigned to read health pamphlets with identical factual information but emphasizing emotional or non-emotional goals.
Findings showed that health messages that emphasized emotional goals, but not those that emphasized future-oriented or neutral goals, were better remembered, were evaluated more positively and led to greater behavioral changes among older adults, but not younger adults.
These findings suggest that health messages targeting older adults may be more effective if they are framed in ways that emphasize love and caring.
The primary aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of three physical activity (PA) behavioural intervention strategies in a sample of adults with type 2 diabetes.
Participants (N = 287) were randomly assigned to one of three groups consisting of the following intervention strategies: (1) standard printed PA educational materials provided by the Canadian Diabetes Association [i.e., Group 1/control group)]; (2) standard printed PA educational materials as in Group 1, pedometers, a log book and printed PA information matched to individuals' PA stage of readiness provided every 3 months (i.e., Group 2); and (3) PA telephone counseling protocol matched to PA stage of readiness and tailored to personal characteristics, in addition to the materials provided in Groups 1 and 2 (i.e., Group 3). PA behaviour measured by the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire and related social-cognitive measures were assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18-months (i.e., 6-month follow-up). Clinical (biomarkers) and health-related quality of life assessments were conducted at baseline, 12-months, and 18-months. Linear Mixed Model (LMM) analyses will be used to examine time-dependent changes from baseline across study time points for Groups 2 and 3 relative to Group 1.
ADAPT will determine whether tailored but low-cost interventions can lead to sustainable increases in PA behaviours. The results may have implications for practitioners in designing and implementing theory-based physical activity promotion programs for this population.
ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00221234.
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We previously reported that a physical activity (PA) behavior change intervention based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) increased PA and quality of life in breast cancer survivors.
To examine the effects of our interventions on TPB variables and to determine if PA at 12 weeks follow-up was mediated by TPB variables at 4 weeks.
Breast cancer survivors (N = 377) were randomly assigned to receive either a standard public health recommendation for PA (SR group), a step pedometer alone, or one of two TPB-based behavior change interventions consisting of print materials (alone or combined with a step pedometer). For the purpose of this study, we compared the two TPB-based intervention groups (INT group) to the SR group.
Compared to the SR group, the INT group reported more favorable changes in instrumental attitude (mean difference = 0.13; 95% CI = -0.01 to 0.23; d = 0.19; p = 0.077), intention (mean difference = 0.33; 95% CI = 0.10 to 0.56; d = 0.33; p = 0.006), and planning (mean difference = 0.39; 95% CI = 0.04 to 0.73; d = 0.26; p = 0.027). Mediation analyses indicated that both planning and intention partially mediated the effects of the intervention on PA at 12 weeks.
Our TPB-based behavior change intervention resulted in small improvements in the TPB constructs that partially mediated the effects of our intervention on PA behavior. Additional research with the TPB is warranted.
Controversy exists about the relation of societal knowledge and attitudes regarding epilepsy. We conducted a survey to examine knowledge and attitudes, to note gender and occupational influences, and to examine the effect of an informational brochure.
We administered a standardized questionnaire that noted demographics and examined knowledge and attitudes regarding epilepsy and persons with epilepsy, respectively, to a wide variety of Canadian college students. In a separate class we gave every other student a brochure regarding epilepsy and then administered the questionnaire to both the naïve and brochure-exposed students.
Knowledge was patchy and weakest for the approximate prevalence of epilepsy in the population, hereditary epilepsy and several other etiologies, recognition of nonconvulsive seizures as a type of epilepsy, and knowledge of antiepileptic drug-induced teratogenicity. In contrast, attitudes were more uniformly favorable. However, 11 and 14%, respectively, showed negative bias against persons with epilepsy having children and equal opportunity for occupational employment. Women were slightly but significantly more tolerant than men. The brochure-exposed group showed better knowledge but equivalent attitudes compared with the naïve group.
Results compare favorably with surveys in other countries. Although knowledge was patchy, it could be easily improved on with an educational brochure. Attitudes were positive but show some discrepancies from knowledge and a gender effect.
Breastfeeding pamphlets are being produced for new mothers by both commercial and nonprofit sources in increasing quantities. A regional lactation committee decided to evaluate these materials on the basis of accuracy, degree of positive approach to breastfeeding, readability and compliance with the WHO/UNICEF Code on the Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes. Results indicate that materials produced by non-profit sources scored higher in positive approach accuracy and WHO Code compliance compared with commercial sources. Only 2 of 22 pamphlets in the sample were written within the recommended reading level of Grade 5-8. None of the materials met all of the criteria for good promotional breastfeeding literature.