The article deals with an analysis of availability of narcotic analgesics for the patients in the Russian Federation. The analysis was based on datafrom official sources on the scopes of opioids delivery in different regions of the Russian Federation and showed an extremely limited availability of narcotic analgesics for the patients in the Russian Federation. We found that availability of narcotic analgesics in Russia is hundreds times lower than the same indexes in European countries with various level of economic activity and in the USA. The analysis showed ten most progressive Russian regions where the use of opioids in the noninvasive forms has become part of systematic clinical practice according to WHO recommendations as well as 10 ten most backward regions where these drugs are hardly used despite of high figures of case death rates from cancer. We made a list of most needed modern Russian and internationally produced drugs according to international data and personal experience. Drugs from this list can be effectually used for the chronic pain therapy in oncology. The most advanced drugs that are soon will be produced are also named. The article describes high priority measures that have already been done to improve current situation and measures to be executed in the future.
In Russia, the medical social, organizational and ethic principles of palliative care of the incurable patients are developed. The theoretical aspects of the tanatological issues of terminally ill patients are covered. The focus is made on the organization of palliative care at the stages of social and psychological death.
To make a comparative clinical and economic assessment of a transdermal therapeutic system (TTS) for fendivia and traditional opioid analgesics in patients with malignant neoplasms (MN) during palliative care.
Pharmacoeconomic analysis of opioid analgesics used in patients with MN during analgesic therapy was made using the cost-effectiveness analysis in the framework of a budget impact analysis (BIA).
The assessment of the medical cost structure in the fendivia and morphine groups (100 patients in each group), which was made in the framework of BIA, demonstrated that the cost of pharmacotherapy in the fendivia group was comparable with that of an ambulance call for additional analgesia and correction of the side effects of performed therapy (615,804.00 and 645,337.60 rbl. monthly, respectively). At the same time, in the morphine group the cost of an ambulance call was more than 20 times that of pharmacotherapy (2,117,514.00 and 93,120.00 rbl. monthly, respectively). Thus, the total savings from applying the fendivia TTS in the group of 100 patients ranged up to 949,492.40 rbl. monthly.
The application of the fendivia TTS is clinically and pharmacoeconomically valid and leads to a considerable reduction in public health care costs.
The share of patients, who apply to oncology facilities with advanced pathologies, shapes up a new situation for oncologists: the sphere of palliative care of both managerial and methodological types must be promoted. Thus, 451299 patients with malignant neoplasms, including those with wide-spread forms (i.e. stages III-IV: 59.1%), were registered in Russia in 2001. One hundred and thirty structural subunits of palliative care were set up in Russia's regions for today; another 58 are being established: however, none of them could be referred to as a perfect one because the role and functions have not yet been defined for palliative care, while all subject-related publications are isolated and scanty. The functioning of hospices and palliative-care subunits is not as a rule coordinated with the oncology service or with oncology experts. This problem should be resolved through setting up the palliative-care regional systems with the role and functions of palliative care being specified for them on the basis of the existing oncology institutes, hospitals and other patient-care facilities. This would maintain the continuity of medical care rendered to oncology patients at all disease stages.
The article substantiates actuality of elaboration of the concept of development of palliative care of children and adolescents. The analysis of legislative and normative legal base, international documents, scientific studies related to this issue are analyzed. The situation in the regions ofthe Russian Federation is examined concerning organization of palliative care of children and its forms, provision of pharmaceuticals and specialized equipment and professional training of specialists. The demand of children population in palliative care in Russia is calculated according data of 2012. The results of carried out study are used as a basis of determining measures of development of system of palliative care of children and adolescents in the Russian Federation to propose as a foundation for the National concept as a necessary condition for organization of effective and efficient service.
to analyze the efficacy of interventional methods in treatment of Klatskin tumor patients.
Treatment of 133 patients with Klatskin tumor for the period 2000-2015 was analyzed. Bismuth I type was revealed in 28 (21.1%) cases, type II - in 45 (33.8%) cases, type III - in 51 (38.3%) cases, type IV - in 9 (6.8%) cases. All patients underwent sonofluoroscopy-assisted percutaneous transhepatic cholangiostomy using self-fixing Pig tail 8Fr drains at the first stage followed by externointernal drainage or antegrade biliary stenting. We deployed 1-6 drains simultaneously or step by step depending on severity of biliary occlusion.
Technical success was achieved in all patients. Major postoperative complication such as drain dislocation followed by advanced biliary peritonitis was observed in 1 (0.8%) case. Minor complications occurred in 22 (16.5%) patients. In-hospital mortality was 7.5% (10 patients). The cause of death was severe liver-renal failure. Liver abscesses occurred in 13 patients after transpapillary externointernal drainage on background of temporary occlusion of biliary drain. This required interventional surgery.
Obstructive jaundice management should be performed using interventional techniques simultaneously or step by step if unresectable tumor or inoperable patient are present. Herewith it is advisable to restore bile flow in maximal volume of liver parenchyma. Use of uncovered self-expanding biliary stents for palliative treatment of Klatskin tumor may be realized in «hybrid» variant to control stent patency as well as for neoadjuvant therapy of tumor.