Hospice of Peel is a community-based hospice serving a population of between 750-800,000. Hospice care evolved to meet the needs of the terminally ill. It can, and does, take many forms, as you will see in the brief case scenarios detailed below. The individuals and situations described are real and typical of day-to-day-hospice care in a large urban environment. Both the sick and their families are in need of support and assistance to enable them to cope during this time of crisis in their lives. Increased awareness of hospice care is resulting in more and more people with a life-threatening or terminal illness and their families turning to hospice care.
The length of survival of 302 patients with breast cancer first treated between 1946 and 1949, who had mostly only contemporary radiotherapy for metastases, has been reviewed and compared with that of 578 patients, first treated between 1966 and 1969, who had modern endocrine therapy, cancer chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Although patients in the latter group demonstrated a significantly increased length of survival after the first metastases appeared, these differences were not substantial. In spite of impressive regressions in some patients with metastatic breast cancer after modern palliative therapy, the median survival after the first appearance of metastases has been increased only by about 6 months.
Ontario, a Canadian province, identified the lack of coordination, integration, and consistency of end-of-life care services as barriers to quality palliative care. To address these barriers, various governmental, organizational, and community-level initiatives were implemented. The Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care enacted an End-of-Life Care Strategy in 2005 aimed at shifting care from acute settings to appropriate alternate settings of care; enhancing client-centered and interdisciplinary service capacity; and improving access, coordination, and consistency of services. Crucial to accomplishing the strategy was the establishment of End-of-Life Networks within health care planning regions. The networks were instrumental in developing end-of-life care service delivery models in the various regions, bringing key stakeholders together toward a common vision, and building strong collaborations across providers and settings. Cancer Care Ontario, an organization dedicated to improving cancer care at the regional and provincial levels, also leads improvements in palliative care through the implementation of a palliative strategy for cancer patients aimed at improved measurement of quality indicators, increased use of evidence and standards, and increased efficiency and access to care. A regional network of organizations in Southeastern Ontario created a quality improvement project, the Palliative Care Integration Project (PCIP), which disseminated common symptom assessment tools, collaborative care plans, and evidence-based guidelines across the continuum of care. The PCIP was embraced by key stakeholders across the province as a model intervention to better coordinate, integrate, and standardize palliative care service delivery, and is currently being spread across all regions of the province.
Although it is desirable that students in the health sciences be educated together to prepare them for interdisciplinary practice, many educational programs remain discipline specific. An undergraduate course in palliative care, originally designed for medical students at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont., was expanded in 1993 to include students from various health sciences programs in the region. The course introduces students to the components of palliative care and its interdisciplinary nature in a problem-based way and directs students to additional educational resources. The authors describe the planning, content and evaluation of the course material. The observed decline in attendance by medical students, which coincided with the introduction of the interdisciplinary format, warrants further investigation. Future directions of the course are discussed.
Cites: J Cancer Educ. 1993 Winter;8(4):309-127514431
The Palliative Care Outreach Program provides consultation, medical care, and psychosocial, emotional and spiritual support to palliative care patients and their families in an out-patient setting. In just over 1 year of operation, the program has proved to be an essential community-based service.