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84 records – page 1 of 9.

AG 85, a major secretion protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, can be identified in ancient bone.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature271332
Source
Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2015 Jun;95 Suppl 1:S87-92
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2015
Author
Tyede H Schmidt-Schultz
Michael Schultz
Source
Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2015 Jun;95 Suppl 1:S87-92
Date
Jun-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Biomarkers - analysis
Blotting, Western
Case-Control Studies
Female
Germany
History, Ancient
History, Medieval
Humans
Indoles - analysis
Male
Microscopy - methods
Middle Aged
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Paleopathology - methods
Siberia
Tuberculosis, Osteoarticular - diagnosis - history
Young Adult
Abstract
For the confirmation of Ag 85 in ancient and recent ECM of native macerated human bone, five cases were investigated. In three individuals, highly positive results for Ag 85 were identified in Western blot: 1) a male from Arzhan, South Siberia, dating from the 7th century BC, 2) a male from Kirchberg in Hesse, Germany, dating from the 10th - 12th century AD and 3) a recent female with a proven diagnosis of TB. As a negative control, a recent male is presented who did not suffer from TB. In another recent male, Ag 85 could be identified only very weakly. From cases in the literature it is well-known that highly positive results for Ag 85 indicate active TB, however, weakly positive results indicate a silent initial infection with Mtb. Thus, apparently, also in ancient individuals, it might well be possible to differentiate between diseased persons and disease carriers using paleoproteomic techniques.
PubMed ID
25890594 View in PubMed
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An assessment of health and disease in the prehistoric inhabitants of the Mariana Islands.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature206993
Source
Am J Phys Anthropol. 1997 Nov;104(3):315-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1997
Author
M. Pietrusewsky
M T Douglas
R M Ikehara-Quebral
Author Affiliation
Department of Anthropology, University of Hawai'i-Manoa, Honolulu 96822, USA. mikep@hawaii.edu
Source
Am J Phys Anthropol. 1997 Nov;104(3):315-42
Date
Nov-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Body Height
Communicable Diseases - epidemiology - history - pathology
Female
Fractures, Bone - epidemiology - history
History, Ancient
History, Medieval
Humans
Life tables
Male
Micronesia - epidemiology
Osteoarthritis - epidemiology - history
Paleodontology
Paleopathology
Prevalence
Tooth Diseases - epidemiology - history - pathology
Abstract
Using a variety of skeletal and dental stress indicators, an assessment of the health and disease of the indigenous inhabitants of the Mariana Islands, the Chamorro, is made. The major hypothesis to be tested is that the Chamorro were relatively healthy and that deviations from the expected, as well as inter-island variation, may reflect environmental, ecological, and cultural differences. The major skeletal series surveyed include sites on Guam (N = 247 individuals), Rota (N = 14), Tinian (N = 20), and Saipan (N = 102). The majority of the specimens are from the transitional pre-Latte (AD 1-1000) and Latte (AD 1000-1521) periods. These data derive primarily from unpublished osteological reports. The indicators of health and disease surveyed include mortality and paleodemographic data, stature, dental paleopathology, cribra orbitalia, limb bone fractures, degenerative osteoarthritis, and infectious disease (including treponemal infection). Where appropriate, tests of significance are calculated to determine the presence of any patterning in the differences observed within and between the skeletal series. Information recorded in prehistoric Hawaiians provides a standard for external comparisons. Several of the larger skeletal series surveyed have paleodemographic features that are consistent with long-term cemetery populations. Females and subadults are typically underrepresented. Most subadult deaths occur in the 2-5 year age interval. Life expectancy at birth ranges from 26.4 to 33.7 years. A healthy fertility rate is indicated for these series. The prehistoric inhabitants of the Mariana Islands were relatively tall, exceeding living Chamorros measured in the early part of the present century. The greater prevalence of developmental defects in the enamel suggests that the Chamorro were exposed to more stress than prehistoric Hawaiians. The low frequency of cribra orbitalia further indicates iron deficiency anemia was not a problem. There are generally low frequencies of dental pathology in the remains from the Mariana Islands. Betel-nut staining is relatively common in all series which may help to explain the relatively low prevalence of dental pathology. Healed limb bone fractures are rare in these skeletal series; the frequency and patterns of fractures suggest accidental injury as the main cause. Greater physical demands involving the lower back region are indicated by a high frequency of spondylolysis, or stress fracture in the lumbar vertebrae in the Chamorro. Likewise, advanced degenerative bone changes, while of low occurrence, are significantly greater in the Chamorro than Hawaiians. The prevalence of skeletal and dental indicators of stress was generally higher in the smaller islands of the Mariansas chain (e.g., Rota), islands with fewer resources to buffer environmental catastrophe. Bony changes suggestive of treponemal (probably yaws) disease are common in most of these Marianas Islands skeletal series.
PubMed ID
9408539 View in PubMed
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Source
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1990 Feb;99(2 Pt 1):146-54
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1990
Author
C J Loveland
L C Pierce
J B Gregg
Author Affiliation
Department of Sociology, Social Work, and Anthropology, Utah State University, Logan.
Source
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1990 Feb;99(2 Pt 1):146-54
Date
Feb-1990
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Bone Diseases - pathology
Child
Child, Preschool
History, Ancient
Humans
Indians, North American
Infant
Mastoid - pathology
Mastoiditis - pathology
Middle Aged
Otitis Media - pathology
Paleopathology
Temporal Bone - abnormalities - pathology
United States
Abstract
Few isolated specimens or series of temporal bone abnormalities from antiquity are reported from North America. Infections were in the past and are today the most common otologic problems. Differentiating infectious disease residua from other causes of osteopathology has proven difficult for some not conversant with disease pathophysiology. During clinical experience spanning five decades and research involving several thousand aboriginal skeletons, data relating to temporal bone disease were accumulated. As a didactic exercise, findings in 18 illustrative temporal bones encountered during research are presented and discussed briefly.
PubMed ID
2405762 View in PubMed
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An introduction to diagnostic criteria of syphilis, treponarid and yaws (treponematoses) in dry bones, and some implications.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature251818
Source
Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat Histol. 1975 Oct 30;368(3):229-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-30-1975
Author
C J Hackett
Source
Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat Histol. 1975 Oct 30;368(3):229-41
Date
Oct-30-1975
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bone and Bones - pathology
History, Ancient
Humans
Indians, North American
Oceanic Ancestry Group
Paleopathology
Syphilis - history
Treponemal Infections - history - pathology
Yaws - history
Abstract
Diagnostic criteria of syphilis and some other diseases are proposed from a study of 424 crania and calvariae and 250 long bones in 22 medical museums in Europe. Yaws bone lesions in Uganda and changes in Australian aboriginal bones also contributed to the establishment of these criteria. Any deductions about disease in the past or isolated populations must depend upon acceptable diagnostic criteria; post mortem damage must be recognised. In crania and calvariae the sequence of changes of Virchow's caries sicca, and in long bones nodes/expansions with superficial cavitation are sound indicators of syphilis, and of yaws and treponarid in relevant geographical areas. Attention is called to the cause of sequestra in European calvariae labelled syphilis, the absence of sequestra due to haematogenous pyogenic osteomyelitis in Australian and other aboriginal bones and possibly in Europe before the Middle Ages. The number of bones with diagnostic criteria needed to demonstrate the endemicity of a particular infection in a past community is discussed. There is also need for an extensive application of diagnostic criteria of syphilis to pre-Columbian or pre-European bones everywhere. The uncertain future of old dry diseased bones in medical museums, and the need for reference centres to provide sound advice and guidance in palaeopathology are stressed.
PubMed ID
810954 View in PubMed
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An Osteological analysis of a late Thule/early historic Labrador Eskimo population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature2600
Source
Ph.D. thesis. University of Toronto. 466 pp.
Date
1978
Author
Way, III, J.E.
Author Affiliation
University of Toronto
Source
Ph.D. thesis. University of Toronto. 466 pp.
Date
1978
Geographic Location
Canada
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Paleopathology
Dentition
Stature
Age at death
Dental attrition
Dental caries
Dental abscess
Fractures
Osteomyelitis
Benign tumor
Osteoporosis
Degenerative joint disease
Osteophytosis
Notes
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 217. UAF - Rasmuson Library E99.E7 W388 1978a ALASKA.
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An unusual case of tuberculosis in a medieval leper.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature70084
Source
Arsberet Kbh Univ Med Hist Inst Mus. 1971;:10
Publication Type
Article
Date
1971
Author
D L Weiss
V. Møller-Christensen
Source
Arsberet Kbh Univ Med Hist Inst Mus. 1971;:10
Date
1971
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Denmark
History, Medieval
Paleopathology - history
Tuberculosis - history
PubMed ID
11613598 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
Am J Phys Anthropol. 2002 Oct;119(2):156-74
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2002
Author
Charles F Merbs
Author Affiliation
Department of Anthropology, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287-2402, USA. charles.merbs@asu.edu
Source
Am J Phys Anthropol. 2002 Oct;119(2):156-74
Date
Oct-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Canada
Female
Fracture Healing
History, 15th Century
History, 16th Century
History, 17th Century
History, 18th Century
History, 19th Century
History, 20th Century
History, Ancient
History, Medieval
Humans
Inuits - history
Lumbar Vertebrae - pathology
Male
Middle Aged
Paleopathology
Sacrum - pathology
Spondylolisthesis - history - pathology
Spondylolysis - history - pathology
Abstract
The objective of this study was to examine examples of spondylolysis in which the pattern of separation was clearly asymmetrical, in order to learn more about the process of bone separation that produces this condition. Although the primary focus was on unilateral complete separation, examples of asymmetry represented by incomplete separation and by complete bilateral separation where the separation sites are in different locations on the two sides were included. Two collections were used, one consisting of Canadian Inuit skeletons curated at the Canadian Museum of Civilization, and the other of 48 individual examples of asymmetrical spondylolysis from sites in a variety of localities curated by several different institutions. The first collection was studied primarily to observe early manifestations of spondylolysis, particularly incomplete separation, while various patterns of asymmetrical complete separation were the focus of the second. The results indicate that asymmetry is part of the earliest osteological picture of spondylolysis, with right-sidedness predominating, a condition perhaps related in some way to handedness. The right-side predominance appears to decrease with age. The ratio of unilateral to bilateral separation ranges from 3-33% in different studies, and a significant number of the unilateral separations have spina bifida occurring in the same vertebra. Overall, the specimens examined here, considered along with clinical cases, nicely illustrate a progression of spondylolysis. A unilateral separation may heal, it may progress to bilateral separation, or it may remain as a permanent condition, producing a pattern of degenerative changes that can include spondylolisthesis. A unilateral healing of bilateral complete separation is likely a rare phenomenon, at least after the separations have reached a certain level of maturity.
PubMed ID
12237936 View in PubMed
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84 records – page 1 of 9.