BACKGROUND: The aim was to investigate compliance by ethnic groups to the mammography screening programme in the City of Copenhagen over six years and to look at developments over time. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Mammography screening has, since 1 April 1991, been offered free of charge to all women between 50 and 69 years of age in the City of Copenhagen. Data on women born in Poland, Turkey, Yugoslavia, and Pakistan divided into five-year groups were compared to that of women born in Denmark and all other foreign-born women. Data from 1991 to 1997 were grouped according to the mammography performed, the offer refused, or non-appearance. RESULTS: Whereas 71% of Danish-born women accepted mammography, compliance by foreign-born women was significantly lower. The offer was accepted by 36% of Pakistanis, 45% of Yugoslavians, 53% of Turks, and 64% of Poles. Compliance fell in all ethnic groups with advancing age. Of the Danish women, 16% failed to keep the appointment. The corresponding percentages were 52 for Pakistanis, 48 for Yugoslavians, 41 for Turks, and 23 for Poles. The proportion of women who actively refused the offer was similar in all groups. The number of invited women fell during the period. CONCLUSIONS: The lower participation of women from the countries under study might have various explanations: among them the language barrier, procedure-related factors, and a lower incidence of breast cancer in the countries of origin.
Immigrants from South Asia to Western countries have a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) associated with obesity. We investigated the relationship between diabetes and adipose tissue distribution in a group of younger T2DM subjects from Norway and Pakistan. Eighteen immigrant Pakistani and 21 Norwegian T2DM subjects (age 29-45, 49% men) were included. They underwent anthropometrical measurements including bioelectrical impedance analysis, CT scans measuring fatty infiltration in liver and adipose and muscle tissue compartments in mid-abdomen and thigh, a euglycemic clamp, and blood samples for serum insulin and plasma glucose, adipokines and inflammation markers. Adipose tissue distribution was similar in Norwegians and Pakistanis. Pakistanis, but not Norwegians, showed a negative correlation between insulin sensitivity and visceral adipose tissue (VAT, rs = - 0.704, p = 0.003). Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) correlated to leptin in both Pakistanis and Norwegians (rs = 0.88, p
A project entitled 'Initiative for aged immigrants' was part of a programme of development to create centres for the aged, which was undertaken in the Oslo inner city area in 1996 by the Norwegian Ministry for Health and Social Affairs.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether Pakistanis have increased bone turnover compared with ethnic Norwegians due to their high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism, and whether the relation between bone turnover and bone mineral density (BMD) differs between Pakistanis and ethnic Norwegians. DESIGN: A cross-sectional, population-based study conducted in the city of Oslo in 2000-2001. Random samples of 132 community-dwelling Pakistani men and women of ages 40, 45, and 59-60 years, and 580 community-dwelling Norwegian men and women of ages 45 and 59-60 years are included in this substudy. METHODS: Venous serum samples were drawn for measurements of markers of the vitamin D endocrine system and the bone turnover markers osteocalcin (s-OC), bone alkaline phosphatase (s-bone ALP), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (s-TRACP). BMD was measured at the forearm by single-energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: Pakistanis had higher s-bone ALP compared with Norwegians. Mean (95% CI) age-adjusted levels were 22.5 (21.0, 24.1) U/l in Pakistani men versus 19.3 (18.6, 20.1) U/l in Norwegian men, P
The study compares frequencies of birth defects between immigrant groups and the rest of the Norwegian population in Norway and estimates the influence of consanguinity and socioeconomic factors on these frequencies. The authors studied all 1.56 million births in Norway from 1967 to 1993. Of these, 7,494 children had two Pakistani parents, 84,688 had one Norwegian and one immigrant parent, and 25,891 had two immigrant parents from countries other than Pakistan. The risk of birth defects relative to the Norwegian group was 0.98 (95% confidence interval 0.92-1.03) in the group with one foreign and one Norwegian parent, 1.39 (95% confidence interval 1.22-1.60) in the group with two Pakistani parents, and 1.04 (95% confidence interval 0.95-1.14) in the group with two parents from other foreign countries; 0.1% of the Norwegian and 30.1% of the Pakistani children had parents who were first cousins. There was no difference in risk between children of nonconsanguineous Pakistani parents and the other groups. The relative risk of birth defects among children whose parents were first cousins was about 2 in all groups. Among the Pakistani, 28% of all birth defects could be attributed to consanguinity. Low paternal educational level was associated with a slightly increased risk in the Norwegian group, while independent effects of parental educational levels were not found in any other groups.
Erratum In: Am J Epidemiol 1997 May 15;145(10):957
Bone mineral density (BMD, grams per square centimeter) is scarcely studied in immigrants from the Indian subcontinent. Pakistani immigrants in Oslo, Norway, have a very high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency. Thus, it is of great interest to compare BMD between Pakistani immigrants and ethnic Norwegians in Oslo. The comparison was done with and without adjustment for skeletal size, and we examined whether known risk factors explained possible differences in bone density between these two ethnic groups. BMD was measured at the distal and ultra-distal forearm site in a random sample of the participants in the Oslo Health Study by single energy X-ray absorptiometry (SXA). One hundred and seventy-three Pakistani-born subjects (71 women, 102 men) and 1,386 Norwegian-born subjects (675 women, 711 men) aged 30, 40, 45 and 59/60 years, living in Oslo, were included in the analysis. To account for variation in skeletal size, we computed height-adjusted BMD values, BMD/height (grams per cubic centimeter), and volumetric bone mineral apparent density (BMAD, grams per cubic centimeter). We found no differences in distal or ultra-distal forearm BMD between Pakistanis and Norwegians in either women or men. We found, however, higher values in Pakistani men when BMD was height-adjusted (2% higher in distal sites and 5% in ultra-distal sites). We also found higher bone mass values (both distal and ultra-distal) in Pakistani women and men than in their Norwegian counterparts when volumetric measures, such as BMD/height (7%-8% higher in women, 6%-7% in men) and BMAD (6% higher in women, 8% in men), were used. In a regression model that included ethnicity, anthropometry and lifestyle factors, BMD was higher in Pakistani men than in Norwegian men, but not in women. We conclude that Pakistanis living in Oslo have similar BMD to ethnic Norwegians, but they have higher volumetric bone mass values. When we adjusted for confounders we found higher BMD values in Pakistani men than in Norwegian men.
BACKGROUND: The levels of cardiovascular risk factors vary in different segments of a population. Our aim was to investigate ethnic differences in cardiovascular risk factors among five major immigrant groups in Oslo, Norway. DESIGN: A population-based, cross-sectional study. METHODS: The Oslo Immigrant Health study was conducted in 2002. All first-generation immigrants aged 31-60 years living in Oslo from Sri Lanka, Turkey, Iran, Vietnam, and a random sample of 30% of those from Pakistan, were invited. A total of 3019 individuals provided written consent and met the inclusion criteria. Participants had a clinical examination, blood test, and were asked to complete the study questionnaire. RESULTS: Immigrants from Vietnam had the highest high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, whereas immigrants from Sri Lanka and Pakistan, and men from Turkey, had the lowest HDL-cholesterol and highest triglycerides. Immigrants from Sri Lanka, Pakistan and Turkey had the highest blood pressure. Smoking was least prevalent among Sri Lankan immigrants and most common among Turkish immigrants. Ethnic differences in blood pressure and HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides among women, were attenuated after adjusting for obesity measures. A moderate and higher (> or =10%) Framingham risk score was most common among Turkish and Pakistani immigrants. CONCLUSIONS: We found ethnic differences in triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol and blood pressure; however, the differences in blood pressure were surprisingly small. Ethnic differences were partly explained by obesity. The prevalence of smoking also varied greatly between the different ethnic groups.