From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 96.
UAA/APU Consortium, Alaskana Collection E99.E7 O783 1967. UAF - Rasmuson Library E99.E7 O783 ALASKA.
Opioids alter resting state brain oscillations by multiple and complex factors, which are still to be elucidated. To increase our knowledge, multi-channel electroencephalography (EEG) was subjected to multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA), to identify the most descriptive frequency bands and scalp locations altered by remifentanil in healthy volunteers. Sixty-two channels of resting EEG followed by independent measures of pain scores to heat and bone pain were recorded in 21 healthy males before and during remifentanil infusion in a placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study. EEG frequency distributions were extracted by a continuous wavelet transform and normalized into delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma bands. Alterations relative to pre-treatment responses were calculated for all channels and used as input to the MVPA. Compared to placebo, remifentanil increased the delta band and decreased the theta and alpha band oscillations as a mean over all channels (all p = 0.007). The most discriminative channels in these frequency bands were F1 in delta (83.33%, p = 0.0023) and theta bands (95.24%, p
Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is an established method for treatment of drug refractory atrial fibrillation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a more active regular supply of analgesic and sedative drugs reduces pain and discomfort. We also wanted to evaluate gender differences in pain perception and to compare standard radiofrequency (RF) with cryo balloon ablation (Cryo) from this perspective.
A total of 80 patients, 40 men, median age 58 (range 23-76) years, who underwent PVI under conscious sedation were studied. They were randomized to either standard treatment with morphine and diazepam (control group, C) or to a more active analgesic strategy (A) with pre-medication with oral midazolam mixture and intravenous alfentanil and midazolam regularly administrated during the procedure. Forty patients were treated with RF and 40 with Cryo.
The majority of the patients experienced pain during the procedure. The maximal pain assessed with numerical rating scale (NRS), was lower in the active group compared with that in controls (p = 0.02). Women experienced more pain than men (p = 0.01). RF was more painful than Cryo (p
Definition of pain in newborns with surgical pathology in the traditional way (change the child's behavior, skin color, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, body temperature, blood gas parameters) is subjective. The "Med-Storm" pain stress detector, manufactured by "Med-Storm Innovation AS" (Norway) allows the quantification of pain during and after surgery in infants. For a small sample, specificity was 76%, sensitivity--89%. Important indicator was the peak skin conductance. The change in the area under the curve was less often, but indicated the need of analgesia dose change.
The genetic influence on sensitivity to noxious stimuli (pain sensitivity) remains controversial and needs further investigation. In the present study, the possible influence of polymorphisms in three opioid receptor (OPRM, OPRD and OPRK) genes and the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene on pain sensitivity in healthy participants was investigated. Catechol-O-methyltransferase has an indirect effect on the mu opioid receptor by changing its activity through an altered endogenous ligand effect. Blood samples for genetic analysis were withdrawn in a multi-modal and multi-tissue experimental pain model in 40 healthy participants aged 20-65. Seventeen different single nucleotide polymorphisms in different genes (OPRM, OPRK, OPRD and COMT) were included in the analysis. Experimental pain tests included thermal skin stimulation, mechanical muscle and bone stimulation and mechanical, electrical and thermal visceral stimulations. A cold pressor test was also conducted. DNA was available from 38 of 40 participants. Compared to non-carriers of the COMT rs4680A allele, carriers reported higher bone pressure pain tolerance threshold (i.e. less pain) by up to 23.8% (p 0.05). In conclusion, COMT rs4680 and OPRK rs6473799 polymorphisms seem to be associated with pain sensitivity. Thus, the findings support a possible genetic influence on pain sensitivity.
Several studies have reported lower neck muscle strength in patients with chronic neck pain compared to healthy controls. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between the severity of neck pain and disability with neck strength and range of movement in women suffering from chronic neck pain. One hundred and seventy-nine female office workers with chronic neck pain were selected to the study. The outcome was assessed by the self-rating questionnaires on neck pain (visual analogue scale, Vernon's disability index, Neck pain and disability index) and by measures of the passive range of movement (ROM) and maximal isometric neck muscle strength. No statistically significant correlation was found between perceived neck pain and the disability indices and the maximal isometric neck strength and ROM measures. However, the pain values reported during the strength tests were inversely correlated with the results of strength tests (r=-0.24 to -0.46), showing that pain was associated with decreased force production. About two-thirds of the patients felt pain during test efforts. Pain may prevent full effort during strength tests and hence the production of maximal force. Thus in patients with chronic neck pain the results do not always describe true maximal strength, but rather the patients' ability to bear strain, which may be considerably influenced by their painful condition. The results of the present study suggest that rehabilitation in cases of chronic neck pain should aim at raising tolerance to mechanical strain.
Evidence of pain alterations in trauma-exposed individuals has been found. The presence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be explaining these alterations, as some of the psychological characteristics of PTSD are hypothesized to increase pain response.
To examine differences in pain response and in certain psychological variables between trauma-exposed women (TEW) with PTSD, TEW without PTSD, and non-trauma-exposed women (NTEW) and to explore the role of these psychological variables in the differences in pain response between the groups.
A total of 122 female students completed a cold pressor task (42 TEW with PTSD, 40 TEW without PTSD, and 40 NTEW). Anxiety sensitivity, experiential avoidance, trait and state dissociation, depressive symptoms, state anxiety, catastrophizing, and arousal were assessed.
TEW with PTSD reported significantly higher pain unpleasantness than NTEW, but not more than that of TEW without PTSD. They also presented higher trait dissociation, state anxiety, depressive symptoms, and skin conductance than the other 2 groups and higher anxiety sensitivity than TEW without PTSD. TEW without PTSD reported more pain unpleasantness than NTEW, but they recovered faster from pain. However, these differences were not explained by any psychological variable.
The results suggest that although trauma-exposed individuals are not more sensitive to painful stimulation, they evaluate pain in a more negative way. Exposure to trauma itself, but not to PTSD, may explain the differences found in pain unpleasantness.
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess the associations between changes in pain and grip strength and manual tests among patients with chronic tennis elbow. DESIGN: Measurements for 45 consecutive patients with unilateral tennis elbow were made before and after an exercise intervention. SETTING: The setting was a physiatric outpatient clinic. PATIENTS: The patients were 45 persons with chronic unilateral tennis elbow: 32 women and 13 men. The mean age was 44 (31-54) years; mean duration of symptoms was 35 (10-66) weeks. OUTCOME MEASURES: Manual tests, pressure pain thresholds at three cubital points, a pain questionnaire, a pain drawing, and grip strength measurements were assessed. RESULTS: Grip strength became normal during the treatment. Pressure pain thresholds reached 66% of that of the healthy arm. Lowered pain thresholds and changes in pain thresholds of the lateral epicondyle were strongly associated with the findings in the manual tests. Mills test and resisted wrist extension tests were associated with perceived pain, and resisted wrist extension tests also were associated with decreased grip strength. Pain on palpation was associated with lowered pain thresholds at the lateral epicondylus and with perceived pain under physical load. After the treatment, for 13 patients all 4 manual tests were still positive; for 17 patients, 3 were still positive; and for 5 patients, all were negative. Positive clinical tests were associated with lowered pain thresholds, decreased grip strength, and high perceived pain scores. CONCLUSIONS: Pain thresholds at the lateral epicondyles are strongly associated with pain on palpation and with a positive Mills test. Resisted wrist extension test results reflect decreased grip strength. Impaired function of the hand is associated with the number of positive clinical tests. Pain threshold evaluation is a simple, easy, inexpensive method that provides useful additional quantitative data on pain and disability among patients with chronic tennis elbow.
Cold-induced peripheral neuropathy has been described in individuals exposed to severe cold resulting in pain, hypersensitivity to cold, hyperhidrosis, numbness, and skin changes. Nerve conduction studies and thermal detection thresholds are abnormal in symptomatic patients, and intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) in skin biopsies is reduced.
A 41-year-old male was included as a healthy subject in a study of the spontaneous variability of quantitative sensory testing (QST), nerve conduction studies (NCS), and IENFD. Unexpectedly, IENFD was significantly reduced, whereas the rest of the examination was normal except for reduced vibration detection threshold. The results were confirmed at follow-up examination. The subject had been repeatedly exposed to severe cold resulting in short lasting numbness and paresthesia while living in the eastern part of Greenland and the northern part of Norway.
Loss of intraepidermal nerve fibers caused by exposure to severe cold may be asymptomatic, and their function assessed by thermal detection thresholds may be preserved. This case illustrates that QST and IENFD are complementary tests and that subclinical cold-induced peripheral neuropathy may be prevalent in subjects living in or near polar regions which could have implications for the recruitment of healthy subjects.
It goes without saying that pain following a burn must be treated but it is not so evident to measure and document the intensity of pain and the efficacy of treatment. Since 1994 the authors have routinely measured background pain, that is, at rest, along with temperature and pulse rate. For analysis and quality assessment a relational database programme is used in the ward. In this paper the authors' experience is reported from a consecutive series of 98 patients with burn injuries who assessed the intensity of pain on a visual analogue scale. There were great intra- and inter-individual variations in pain intensity. Highest values were found during the first week of treatment when female patients experienced pain more intensively than male. For other time periods there was no statistical significant difference between the sexes. Pain intensity and severity of burn was not related except during the second week when patients with major burns had a tendency to express more pain than moderate burns. Measurement of background pain along with other routine registrations is easy and not time-consuming. Patients needing intensified pain treatment can be identified. For research and quality assessment a computerized patient register is of great help.