The purpose of the study was to investigate the associations of abdominal obesity and overall obesity with the risk of acute coronary events.
Body mass index indicating overall obesity and waist-to-hip ratio and waist circumference indicating abdominal obesity were measured for 1346 Finnish men aged 42-60 years who had neither cardiovascular disease nor cancer at baseline. There were 123 acute coronary events during an average follow-up of 10.6 years. In Cox regression analyses adjusted for confounding factors, waist-to-hip ratio (P=0.009), waist circumference (P=0.010) and body mass index (P=0.013) as continuous variables were associated directly with the risk of coronary events. These associations were in part explained by blood pressure, diabetes, fasting serum insulin, serum lipids, plasma fibrinogen, and serum uric acid. Waist-to-hip ratio of > or =0.91 was associated with a nearly threefold risk of coronary events. Waist-to-hip ratio provided additional information beyond body mass index in predicting coronary heart disease, whereas body mass index did not add to the predictive value of waist-to-hip ratio. Abdominal obesity combined with smoking and poor cardiorespiratory fitness increased the risk of coronary events 5.5 and 5.1 times, respectively.
Abdominal obesity is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease in middle-aged men and even more important than overall obesity. Since the effect of abdominal obesity was strongest in smoking and unfit men, the strategy for lifestyle modification to prevent coronary heart disease should address these issues jointly.
Comment In: Eur Heart J. 2002 May;23(9):687-911977990
In the Antarctic, fishes of dominant suborder Notothenioidei have evolved in a unique thermal scenario. Phylogenetically related taxa of the suborder live in a wide range of latitudes, in Antarctic, sub-Antarctic and temperate oceans. Consequently, they offer a remarkable opportunity to study the physiological and biochemical characters gained and, conversely, lost during their evolutionary history. The evolutionary perspective has also been pursued by comparative studies of some features of the heme protein devoted to O(2) transport in fish living in the other polar region, the Arctic. The two polar regions differ by age and isolation. Fish living in each habitat have undergone regional constraints and fit into different evolutionary histories. The aim of this contribution is to survey the current knowledge of molecular structure, functional features, phylogeny and adaptations of the haemoglobins of fish thriving in the Antarctic, sub-Antarctic and Arctic regions (with some excursions in the temperate latitudes), in search of insights into the convergent processes evolved in response to cooling. Current climate change may disturb adaptation, calling for strategies aimed at neutralising threats to biodiversity.
We studied 12 highly trained athletes, 6 male ice-hockey players and 6 cross-country skiers (2 females, 4 males). All of them participated in a maximal electrically braked bicycle ergometer test in a hypobaric chamber at the simulated altitude of 3000m (520 mmHg) and in normobaric conditions two days apart in random order. The maximal oxygen uptake was 57.4 +/- 7.1 (SD) ml/kg/min in normobaria (VO2maxnorm) and 46.6 +/- 4.9 (SD) ml/kg/min in hypobaric hypoxia (VO2maxhyp). The decrease in maximal oxygen uptake (delta VO2max) at the simulated altitude of 3000m correlated significantly (p
Although it is well established that maximal O(2) uptake (Vo(2 max)) declines from adulthood to old age, the role played by alterations in skeletal muscle is unclear. Specifically, because during whole body exercise reductions in convective O(2) delivery to the working muscles from adulthood to old age compromise aerobic performance, this obscures the influence of alterations within the skeletal muscles. We sought to overcome this limitation by using an in situ pump-perfused hindlimb preparation to permit matching of muscle convective O(2) delivery in young adult (8 mo; muscle convective O(2) delivery = 569 +/- 42 micromol O(2) x min(-1) x 100 g(-1)) and late middle-aged (28-30 mo; 539 +/- 62 micromol O(2) x min(-1) x 100 g(-1)) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway F1 hybrid rats. The distal hindlimb muscles were electrically stimulated for 4 min (60 tetani/min), and Vo(2 max) was determined. Vo(2 max) normalized to the contracting muscle mass was 22% lower in the 28- to 30-mo-old (344 +/- 17 micromol O(2). min(-1) x 100 g(-1)) than the 8-mo-old (441 +/- 20 micromol O(2) x min(-1) x 100 g(-1); P
Age peculiarities of cardiorespiratory system reactions on isocapnic hypoxia (inhalation of gas mixture of 12% O2) have been investigated. It has been stated that breathing with hypoxic mixture resulted in more significant shift of O2 blood saturation, AP and autonomic balance in the elderly people (p
Previous results [(1988) Arct. Med. Res. 47, 83-88] have shown that hemoglobin from reindeer is characterized by a low overall heat of oxygenation. This particular aspect has been investigated further in a series of precise oxygen equilibrium experiments. The results obtained show a peculiar dependence of the temperature effect on the fractional saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen, which could be regarded as a very interesting case of molecular adaptation to extreme environmental conditions.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the extent and quality of follow-up of patients on LTOT. SETTING: The Danish Oxygen Register. SUBJECTS: A total of 890 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients who were on long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) during the period from 1 November 1994 to 31 August 1995. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The extent and quality of follow-up. RESULTS: Only 38.5% of the patients were followed up in the study period, and only 17.5% had a 'sufficient follow-up' defined as at least one follow-up visit within 10 months which included measurement of arterial blood gases or pulsoximetry with oxygen supply, verification that the patient used oxygen > or =15 h day-1 and was nonsmoker. Female gender, LTOT initiated 3-12 months ago, LTOT started by a chest physician at pulmonary department and LTOT prescribed > or =15 h day-1 were found to be significant predictors of 'sufficient follow-up' (odds ratio (OR): 1.7, 2.0, 3.7 and 1.9, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The extent and the quality of follow-up of patients on LTOT were poor, especially if a nonpulmonary physician initiated LTOT. We recommend that more attention should be paid on proper monitoring of LTOT, and that only chest physicians should be able to prescribe and re-evaluate LTOT.