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Air contaminants in a submarine equipped with air independent propulsion.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166824
Source
J Environ Monit. 2006 Nov;8(11):1111-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2006
Author
Ola Persson
Christina Ostberg
Joakim Pagels
Aleksandra Sebastian
Author Affiliation
Division of Heat Transfer, Department of Heat and Power Engineering, Lund Institute of Technology, Box 118, 221 00, Lund, Sweden.
Source
J Environ Monit. 2006 Nov;8(11):1111-21
Date
Nov-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants, Occupational - analysis - standards
Carbon Dioxide - analysis - standards
Ecological Systems, Closed
Environmental Monitoring - standards
Gram-Negative Bacteria - isolation & purification
Humans
Hydrogen - analysis - standards
Life Support Systems
Organic Chemicals - analysis - standards
Oxygen - analysis - standards
Ozone - analysis - standards
Pressure
Submarine Medicine
Sweden
Temperature
Volatilization
Abstract
The Swedish Navy has operated submarines equipped with air independent propulsion for two decades. This type of submarine can stay submerged for periods far longer than other non-nuclear submarines are capable of. The air quality during longer periods of submersion has so far not been thoroughly investigated. This study presents results for a number of air quality parameters obtained during more than one week of continuous submerged operation. The measured parameters are pressure, temperature, relative humidity, oxygen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter and microbiological contaminants. The measurements of airborne particles demonstrate that air pollutants typically occur at a low baseline level due to high air exchange rates and efficient air-cleaning devices. However, short-lived peaks with comparatively high concentrations occur, several of the sources for these have been identified. The concentrations of the pollutants measured in this study do not indicate a build-up of hazardous compounds during eight days of submersion. It is reasonable to assume that a substantial build-up of the investigated contaminants is not likely if the submersion period is prolonged several times, which is the case for modern submarines equipped with air independent propulsion.
PubMed ID
17075617 View in PubMed
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An experiment with forced oxygenation of the deepwater of the anoxic By Fjord, western Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature266770
Source
Ambio. 2015 Feb;44(1):42-54
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2015
Author
Anders Stigebrandt
Bengt Liljebladh
Loreto de Brabandere
Michael Forth
Åke Granmo
Per Hall
Jonatan Hammar
Daniel Hansson
Mikhail Kononets
Marina Magnusson
Fredrik Norén
Lars Rahm
Alexander H Treusch
Lena Viktorsson
Source
Ambio. 2015 Feb;44(1):42-54
Date
Feb-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Conservation of Natural Resources - economics - methods
Environmental monitoring
Estuaries
Geologic Sediments - analysis
Nitrates - analysis
Oxidation-Reduction
Oxygen - analysis
Seasons
Seawater - microbiology
Sweden
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
In a 2.5-year-long environmental engineering experiment in the By Fjord, surface water was pumped into the deepwater where the frequency of deepwater renewals increased by a factor of 10. During the experiment, the deepwater became long-term oxic, and nitrate became the dominating dissolved inorganic nitrogen component. The amount of phosphate in the water column decreased by a factor of 5 due to the increase in flushing and reduction in the leakage of phosphate from the sediments when the sediment surface became oxidized. Oxygenation of the sediments did not increase the leakage of toxic metals and organic pollutants. The bacterial community was the first to show changes after the oxygenation, with aerobic bacteria also thriving in the deepwater. The earlier azoic deepwater bottom sediments were colonized by animals. No structural difference between the phytoplankton communities in the By Fjord and the adjacent Havsten Fjord, with oxygenated deepwater, could be detected during the experiment.
Notes
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Cites: Nature. 2009 Jan 29;457(7229):581-419078958
Cites: Science. 2008 Aug 15;321(5891):926-918703733
PubMed ID
24789509 View in PubMed
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Animal evolution and atmospheric pO2: is there a link between gradual animal adaptation to terrain elevation due to Ural orogeny and survival of subsequent hypoxic periods?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267416
Source
Theor Biol Med Model. 2014;11:47
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Sven Kurbel
Source
Theor Biol Med Model. 2014;11:47
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Physiological
Altitude
Animals
Anoxia - physiopathology
Biological Evolution
Oxygen - analysis
Russia
Abstract
Considering evolution of terrestrial animals as something happening only on flat continental plains seems wrong. Many mountains have arisen and disappeared over the geologic time scale, so in all periods some areas of high altitude existed, with reduced oxygen pressure (pO2) and increased aridity. During orogeny, animal species of the raising terrain can slowly adapt to reduced oxygen levels.This review proposes that animal evolution was often driven by atmospheric oxygen availability. Transitions of insect ancestors and amphibians out of water are here interpreted as events forced by the lack of oxygen in shallow and warm water during Devonian. Hyperoxia during early Carboniferous allowed giant insects to be predators of lowlands, forcing small amphibians to move to higher terrains, unsuitable to large insects due to reduced pO2. In arid mountainous habitats, ascended animals evolved in early reptiles with more efficient lungs and improved circulation. Animals with alveolar lungs became the mammalian ancestors, while those with respiratory duct lungs developed in archosaurs. In this interpretation, limb precursors of wings and pneumatised bones might have been adaptations for moving on steep slopes.Ural mountains have risen to an estimated height of 3000 m between 318 and 251 Mya. The earliest archosaurs have been found on the European Ural side, estimated 275 Myr old. It is proposed that Ural orogeny slowly elevated several highland habitats within the modern Ural region to heights above 2500 m. Since this process took near 60 Myr, animals in these habitats fully to adapted to hypoxia.The protracted P-Tr hypoxic extinction event killed many aquatic and terrestrial animals. Devastated lowland areas were repopulated by mammaliaformes that came down from mountainous areas. Archosaurs were better adapted to very low pO2, so they were forced to descend to the sea level later when the lack of oxygen became severe. During the Triassic period, when the relative content of O2 reduced to near 12%, archosaurs prevailed as only animals that could cope with profound hypoxia at the sea level. Their diverse descendants has become dominant terrestrial animals, until the K-Pg extinction due to meteor impact.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25335870 View in PubMed
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An integrated numerical framework for water quality modelling in cold-region rivers: A case of the lower Athabasca River.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290773
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2016 Nov 01; 569-570:634-646
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Nov-01-2016
Author
Ahmad Shakibaeinia
Shalini Kashyap
Yonas B Dibike
Terry D Prowse
Author Affiliation
Water & Climate Impact Research Centre, Environment and Climate Change Canada, University of Victoria, Canada. Electronic address: shakiba@uvic.ca.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2016 Nov 01; 569-570:634-646
Date
Nov-01-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Alberta
Cold Temperature
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Models, Theoretical
Nitrogen - analysis
Oxygen - analysis
Phosphorus - analysis
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Water Quality
Abstract
There is a great deal of interest to determine the state and variations of water quality parameters in the lower Athabasca River (LAR) ecosystem, northern Alberta, Canada, due to industrial developments in the region. As a cold region river, the annual cycle of ice cover formation and breakup play a key role in water quality transformation and transportation processes. An integrated deterministic numerical modelling framework is developed and applied for long-term and detailed simulation of the state and variation (spatial and temporal) of major water quality constituents both in open-water and ice covered conditions in the lower Athabasca River (LAR). The framework is based on the a 1D and a 2D hydrodynamic and water quality models externally coupled with the 1D river ice process models to account for the cold season effects. The models are calibrated/validated using available measured data and applied for simulation of dissolved oxygen (DO) and nutrients (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus). The results show the effect of winter ice cover on reducing the DO concentration, and a fluctuating temporal trend for DO and nutrients during summer periods with substantial differences in concentration between the main channel and flood plains. This numerical frame work can be the basis for future water quality scenario-based studies in the LAR.
PubMed ID
27376919 View in PubMed
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Arsenic, antimony, and nickel leaching from northern peatlands treating mining influenced water in cold climate.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298194
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2019 Mar 20; 657:1161-1172
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-20-2019
Author
Uzair Akbar Khan
Katharina Kujala
Soile P Nieminen
Marja Liisa Räisänen
Anna-Kaisa Ronkanen
Author Affiliation
Water Resources and Environmental Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, FI-90014, Oulu, Finland. Electronic address: uzair.khan@oulu.fi.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2019 Mar 20; 657:1161-1172
Date
Mar-20-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Antimony - analysis
Arctic Regions
Arsenic - analysis
Finland
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Mining
Nickel - analysis
Oxygen - analysis
Soil - chemistry
Soil Pollutants - analysis
Temperature
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Water Purification - methods
Abstract
Increased metal mining in the Arctic region has caused elevated loads of arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), nickel (Ni), and sulfate (SO42-) to recipient surface or groundwater systems. The need for cost-effective active and passive mine water treatment methods has also increased. Natural peatlands are commonly used as a final step for treatment of mining influenced water. However, their permanent retention of harmful substances is affected by influent concentrations and environmental conditions. The effects of dilution, pH, temperature, oxygen availability, and contaminant accumulation on retention and leaching of As, Sb, Ni, and sulfate from mine process water and drainage water obtained from treatment peatlands in Finnish Lapland were studied in batch sorption experiments, and discussed in context of field data and environmental impacts. The results, while demonstrating effectiveness of peat to remove the target contaminants from mine water, revealed the risk of leaching of As, Sb, and SO42- from treatment peatlands when diluted mine water was introduced. Sb was more readily leached compared to As while leaching of both was supported by higher pH of 9. No straightforward effect of temperature and oxygen availability in controlling removal and leaching was evident from the results. The results also showed that contaminant accumulation in treatment peatlands after long-term use can lead to decreased removal and escalated leaching of contaminants, with the effect being more pronounced for As and Ni.
PubMed ID
30677883 View in PubMed
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Source
Life Support Biosph Sci. 1994;1(2):83-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
1994
Author
R M Wheeler
Author Affiliation
NASA Biomedical Operations & Research Office, Kennedy Space Center, FL, USA.
Source
Life Support Biosph Sci. 1994;1(2):83-4
Date
1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Carbon Dioxide - analysis - metabolism
Crops, Agricultural - growth & development - metabolism - physiology
Ecological Systems, Closed
Environment, Controlled
Humans
Life Support Systems - standards
Oxygen - analysis - metabolism
Russia
Abstract
The article in this issue by Gitelson and Okladnikov provides a valuable summary of some of the work conducted at the Bios-3 project in Krasnoyarsk, Russia. As the title suggests, the focus is on humans and their role in a CELSS biosphere. I am aware of several translated reports and some recent articles by Dr. Gitelson and colleagues in which the Bios project is described, but this paper provides some information that I have not seen previously in an english article. Although the discussion is focused on bioregeneration, the authors state that complementary physicochemical technologies and some stowage may be needed in a CELSS. For example, animal protein foods were taken into the Bios-3 chamber, since, as the authors state, "products of animal origin would make the system considerably more complicated and energy inefficient."
Notes
Comment On: Life Support Biosph Sci. 1994 Summer;1(2):73-8111538717
PubMed ID
11538718 View in PubMed
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Blood gases and hypothermia: some theoretical and practical considerations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature57284
Source
Scand J Clin Lab Invest Suppl. 1996;224:21-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
1996
Author
J. Kofstad
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Chemistry, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway.
Source
Scand J Clin Lab Invest Suppl. 1996;224:21-6
Date
1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Blood Gas Analysis
Carbon Dioxide - analysis - blood
Comparative Study
Humans
Hypothermia - blood
Oxygen - analysis - blood
Abstract
There is much controversy about the optimal bloodgas management of hypothermic patients, whether the hypothermia is caused by accidents or induced before operations. The surgeons and anestesiologists have acquired more clinical experience the last years when operating patients in hypothermia. The comparative physiology has given increased information about the blood gas strategy of heterothermic endotherms and poikilothermic ectotherms during lowering of their core temperature. There are two types of strategies which have been used in clinical medicine the last years in the blood gas management of patients in hypothermia: pH-stat method and alpha-stat method. In the pH-stat method, the arterial carbon dioxide tension (pCO2(a)) is maintained at 5.3 kPa (40 mmHg) and the pH is maintained at 7.40 when measured at the actual temperature. It is then necessary to add CO2 to the inspired gas. In the alpha-method, the arterial carbon dioxide tension and the pH are maintained at 5.3 kPa and 7.40 when measured at +37 degrees C. When a patient is cooled down, the pH-value will increase and the pCO2-value and the pO2-value will decrease with lowering of the temperature if measured at the patients temperature. Both the pH-stat and alpha-stat strategies have theoretical disadvantages. For the optimal myocardial function the alpha-stat method is the method of choice. The pH-stat method may result in loss of autoregulation in the brain (coupling of the cerebral blood flow with the metabolic rate in the brain). By increasing the cerebral blood flow beyond the metabolic requirements, the pH-stat method may lead to cerebral microembolisation and intracranial hypertension. In Norway the alpha-stat strategy is the preferred method.
PubMed ID
8865418 View in PubMed
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Capture and medetomidine-ketamine anesthesia of free-ranging wolverines (Gulo gulo).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87068
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2008 Jan;44(1):133-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2008
Author
Fahlman Asa
Arnemo Jon M
Persson Jens
Segerström Peter
Nyman Görel
Author Affiliation
Section of Anesthesiology and Emergency, Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden. asa_fahlman@hotmail.com
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2008 Jan;44(1):133-42
Date
Jan-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acid-Base Equilibrium - drug effects
Age Factors
Anesthetics, Dissociative - administration & dosage
Animals
Animals, Wild - physiology
Blood Gas Analysis - veterinary
Blood Pressure - drug effects
Drug Combinations
Female
Heart Rate - drug effects
Hypnotics and Sedatives - administration & dosage
Immobilization - methods - veterinary
Ketamine - administration & dosage
Male
Medetomidine - administration & dosage
Mustelidae - physiology
Oximetry - methods - veterinary
Oxygen - analysis - metabolism
Respiration - drug effects
Sweden
Abstract
Capture and anesthesia with medetomidine-ketamine were evaluated in free-ranging wolverines (Gulo gulo) immobilized for marking with radiocollars or intraperitoneal radiotransmitters in Norrbotten, Sweden, during early June 2004 and 2005. Twelve juvenile wolverines were captured by hand and injected with 0.14 +/- 0.03 mg/kg (mean +/- SD) medetomidine and 7.5 +/- 2.0 mg/kg ketamine. Twelve adult wolverines were darted from a helicopter or the ground, or captured by hand. Adults received 0.37 +/- 0.06 mg/kg medetomidine and 9.4 +/- 1.4 mg/kg ketamine. Arterial blood samples were collected between 15 min and 30 min and between 45 min and 60 min after drug administration and immediately analyzed for selected hematologic and plasma variables. Hyperthermia was recorded initially in one juvenile wolverine and 11 adults. Rectal temperature, heart rate, and lactate decreased significantly during anesthesia, whereas hemoglobin oxygen saturation, pH, partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide, and base excess increased. Adult wolverines darted from a helicopter had a significantly higher rectal temperature, higher glucose and hematocrit values, and a lower heart rate than juveniles captured by hand. Impaired arterial oxygenation was evident in all wolverines. This study provides baseline data on physiologic variables in adult and juvenile wolverines captured with different methods and anesthetized with medetomidine-ketamine.
PubMed ID
18263828 View in PubMed
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Cattle Management for Dairying in Scandinavia's Earliest Neolithic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature271749
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(7):e0131267
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Kurt J Gron
Janet Montgomery
Peter Rowley-Conwy
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(7):e0131267
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agriculture - history
Animal Husbandry - history
Animals
Carbon - analysis
Cattle - growth & development - metabolism
Dairying - history
Dental Enamel - chemistry
Emigration and Immigration
Female
History, Ancient
Humans
Isotopes - analysis
Lactation
Oxygen - analysis
Scandinavian and Nordic Countries - ethnology
Seasons
Social Change
Strontium - analysis
Sweden
Abstract
New evidence for cattle husbandry practices during the earliest period of the southern Scandinavian Neolithic indicates multiple birth seasons and dairying from its start. Sequential sampling of tooth enamel carbonate carbon and oxygen isotope ratio analyses and strontium isotopic provenancing indicate more than one season of birth in locally reared cattle at the earliest Neolithic Funnel Beaker (EN I TRB, 3950-3500 cal. B.C.) site of Almhov in Scania, Sweden. The main purpose for which cattle are manipulated to give birth in more than one season is to prolong lactation for the production of milk and dairy-based products. As this is a difficult, intensive, and time-consuming strategy, these data demonstrate complex farming practices by early Neolithic farmers. This result offers strong support for immigration-based explanations of agricultural origins in southern Scandinavia on the grounds that such a specialised skill set cannot represent the piecemeal incorporation of agricultural techniques into an existing hunter-gatherer-fisher economy.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26146989 View in PubMed
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Continuum-based DFN-consistent numerical framework for the simulation of oxygen infiltration into fractured crystalline rocks.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285056
Source
J Contam Hydrol. 2017 May;200:60-69
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2017
Author
Paolo Trinchero
Ignasi Puigdomenech
Jorge Molinero
Hedieh Ebrahimi
Björn Gylling
Urban Svensson
Dirk Bosbach
Guido Deissmann
Source
J Contam Hydrol. 2017 May;200:60-69
Date
May-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Groundwater - chemistry
Hydrology - methods
Iron - chemistry
Minerals - chemistry
Models, Theoretical
Oxidation-Reduction
Oxygen - analysis - chemistry
Sweden
Water Movements
Abstract
We present an enhanced continuum-based approach for the modelling of groundwater flow coupled with reactive transport in crystalline fractured rocks. In the proposed formulation, flow, transport and geochemical parameters are represented onto a numerical grid using Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) derived parameters. The geochemical reactions are further constrained by field observations of mineral distribution. To illustrate how the approach can be used to include physical and geochemical complexities into reactive transport calculations, we have analysed the potential ingress of oxygenated glacial-meltwater in a heterogeneous fractured rock using the Forsmark site (Sweden) as an example. The results of high-performance reactive transport calculations show that, after a quick oxygen penetration, steady state conditions are attained where abiotic reactions (i.e. the dissolution of chlorite and the homogeneous oxidation of aqueous iron(II) ions) counterbalance advective oxygen fluxes. The results show that most of the chlorite becomes depleted in the highly conductive deformation zones where higher mineral surface areas are available for reactions.
PubMed ID
28412014 View in PubMed
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41 records – page 1 of 5.