The effect of solar radiation on flavonoid biosynthesis was studied in bilberry ( Vaccinium myrtillus L.) leaves. Expression of flavonoid pathway genes of bilberry was studied in the upper leaves of bilberry, exposed to direct sunlight, in the shaded leaves growing lower in the same plants and in fruits. Bilberry-specific digoxigenin-dUTP-labeled cDNA fragments of five genes from the general phenylpropanoid pathway coding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and from the flavonoid pathway coding chalcone synthase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, and anthocyanidin synthase were used as probes in gene expression analysis. Anthocyanins, catechins, proanthocyanidins, flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids from the leaves and fruits were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography combined with a diode array detector. An increase in the expression of the studied flavonoid pathway genes was observed in leaves growing under direct sun exposure. Also, the concentrations of anthocyanins, catechins, flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids were higher in the leaves exposed to direct sunlight. However, the concentration of polymeric procyanidins was lower in sun-exposed leaves, whereas that of prodelphinidins was slightly increased. The results give further support for the protective role of flavonoids and hydroxy cinnamic acids against high solar radiation in plants. Also, the roles of different flavonoid compounds as a defense against stress caused by sun exposure is discussed.
Evidence of microbial zonation in the open ocean is rapidly accumulating, but while the distribution of communities is often described according to depth, the other physical factors structuring microbial diversity and function remain poorly understood. Here we identify three different water masses in the North Water (eastern Canadian Arctic), defined by distinct temperature and salinity characteristics, and show that they contained distinct archaeal communities. Moreover, we found that one of the water masses contained an increased abundance of the archaeal alpha-subunit of the ammonia monooxygenase gene (amoA) and accounted for 70% of the amoA gene detected overall. This indicates likely differences in putative biogeochemical capacities among different water masses. The ensemble of our results strongly suggest that the widely accepted view of depth stratification did not explain microbial diversity, but rather that parent water masses provide the framework for predicting communities and potential microbial function in an Arctic marine system. Our results emphasize that microbial distributions are strongly influenced by oceanic circulation, implying that shifting currents and water mass boundaries resulting from climate change may well impact patterns of microbial diversity by displacing whole biomes from their historic distributions. This relocation could have the potential to establish a substantially different geography of microbial-driven biogeochemical processes and associated oceanic production.
In this study, three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) gene associated with exfoliation syndrome (XFS) and exfoliation glaucoma (XFG) were investigated in the Finnish population. A case-control study of 59 sporadic patients with XFS, 82 with XFG, 71 with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and 26 individuals without these disorders from the southern Finnish population, and a family study of an extended family with 28 patients with XFS or XFG and 92 unaffected relatives from Kökar islands, Southwestern Finnish archipelago, were conducted. Anonymous blood donors (n=404) were studied as population-based controls. Three SNPs, rs1048661 (R141L), rs3825942 (G153D) and rs2165241, of the LOXL1 gene were genotyped by PCR sequencing. Association and linkage analyses were carried out. In both case-control and family materials, significant association for allele G of rs1048661 (P=2.65 x 10(-5); P=0.0007), allele G of rs3825942 (P=2.24 x 10(-8); P=0.49) and allele T of rs2165241 (P=2.62 x 10(-13); P
Enzymes of biotransformation system involved in the metabolism of exogenous and endogenous compounds are effective mechanism of protection from negative environmental factors. Decreasing activity or insufficient synthesis of biotransformation system enzymes caused by genetic polymorphism form the risk of various complex diseases, including atopic. Using allele-specific hybridization on the biochip the frequencies of xenobiotic-metabolizing gene polymorphisms in Russian children with bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitisand healthy donors from the Republic of Bashkortostan have been determined. The analysis of polymorphisms in CYP1A1, GSTT1, GSTM1, NAT2, MTHFR, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 genes didn't reveal any association with atopic diseases. The frequencies of CYP2D6*1934G/G genotype and CYP2D6*1934G allele were significantly higher among boys with rhinitis symptoms than in control group.
Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics - Subdivision of the Ufa Federal Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IBG UFRC RAS), Pr. Oktybry 71, Ufa 450054, Russian Federation. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex chronic inflammatory disease of the respiratory system affecting primarily distal respiratory pathways and lung parenchyma. This work was designed as a case-control study aimed at investigating the association of the NRF2/KEAP1 signaling system, and antioxidant defense gene polymorphisms with COPD in population from Russia.
Ten SNPs: NFE2L2 (rs35652124), KEAP1 (rs1048290), MPO (rs2333227), PRNP (rs1799990), PTGR1 (rs2273788), HSPA1A (rs1008438), TXNRD2 (rs1139793), GSR (rs1002149), SIRT2 (rs10410544), and PTGS1 (rs1330344) were genotyped by the real-time polymerase chain reaction (TaqMan assays) in a case-control study (425 COPD patients and 457 controls, from the same region of Russia, representatives of Tatar population). Logistic regression was used to detect the association of SNPs in different models. Linear regression analyses were performed to estimate the relationship between SNPs and lung function parameters and smoking pack-years.
In our population, a significant associations of KEAP1 (rs1048290) (P?=?0.0015, OR?=?0.72 in additive model), HSPA1A (rs1008438) (P?=?0.006, OR?=?2.26 in recessive model), GSR (rs1002149) (P?=?0.037, OR?=?1.31 in additive model) with COPD were revealed. NFE2L2 (rs35652124), PRNP (rs1799990), and HSPA1A (rs1008438) were significantly associated with COPD only in smokers. In nonsmokers, significant association was established for GSR (rs1002149). KEAP1 (rs1048290) was associated with COPD in both groups. The relationship between KEAP1 (rs1048290), NFE2L2 (rs35652124), and HSPA1A (rs1008438) and smoking pack-years was found (P?=?0.005, P?=?0.0028, P?=?0.015). A significant genotype-dependent variation of forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1?s was observed for SIRT2 (rs10410544) (P?=?0.04), NFE2L2 (rs35652124) (P?=?0.028), and PRNP (rs1799990) (P?=?0.044).
PURPOSE: The study was initiated to investigate the mutation spectrum of four OCA genes and to calculate the birth prevalence in patients with autosomal recessive albinism. METHODS: Mutation analysis using dHPLC or direct DNA sequencing of TYR, OCA2, TYRP1, and MATP was performed in 62 patients. Furthermore, 15 patients were investigated for mutations in SLC24A5. Allele expression was investigated in heterozygous patients by RT-PCR analysis. The birth prevalence was calculated based on retrospective data from a compulsory national register. RESULTS: Sixty-two patients were investigated for mutations. Two mutations in one OCA gene explained oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) in 44% of the patients. Mutations in TYR were found in 26% of patients, while OCA2 and MATP caused OCA in 15% and 3%, respectively. No mutations were found in TYRP1. Of the remaining 56% of patients, 29% were heterozygous for a mutation in either TYR or OCA2, and 27% were without mutations in any of the four genes. Exclusive expression of the mutant allele was found in four heterozygous patients. A minimum birth prevalence of 1 in 14,000 was calculated, based on register data on 218 patients. The proportion of OCA to autosomal recessive ocular albinism (AROA) based on clinical findings was 55 to 45. CONCLUSIONS: TYR is the major OCA gene in Denmark, but several patients do not have mutations in the investigated genes. A relatively large fraction of patients were observed with AROA, and of those 52% had no mutations compared with 15% of those with OCA.
Variegate porphyria (VP) is an inherited metabolic disease resulting from the partial deficiency of protoporphyrinogen oxidase, the penultimate enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway. We have evaluated the clinical and biochemical outcome of 103 Finnish VP patients diagnosed between 1966 and 2001. Fifty-two per cent of patients had experienced clinical symptoms: 40% had photosensitivity, 27% acute attacks and 14% both manifestations. The proportion of patients with acute attacks has decreased dramatically from 38 to 14% in patients diagnosed before and after 1980, whereas the prevalence of skin symptoms had decreased only subtly from 45 to 34%. We have studied the correlation between PPOX genotype and clinical outcome of 90 patients with the three most common Finnish mutations I12T, R152C and 338G-->C. The patients with the I12T mutation experienced no photosensitivity and acute attacks were rare (8%). Therefore, the occurrence of photosensitivity was lower in the I12T group compared to the R152C group (P=0.001), whereas no significant differences between the R152C and 338G-->C groups could be observed. Biochemical abnormalities were significantly milder suggesting a milder form of the disease in patients with the I12T mutation. In all VP patients, normal excretion of protoporphyrin in faeces in adulthood predicted freedom from both skin symptoms and acute attacks. The most valuable test predicting an increased risk of symptoms was urinary coproporphyrin, but only a substantially increased excretion exceeding 1,000 nmol/day was associated with an increased risk of both skin symptoms and acute attacks. All patients with an excretion of more than 1,000 nmol/day experienced either skin symptoms, acute attacks, or both.
Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness. A genome-wide search yielded multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 15q24.1 region associated with glaucoma. Further investigation revealed that the association is confined to exfoliation glaucoma (XFG). Two nonsynonymous SNPs in exon 1 of the gene LOXL1 explain the association, and the data suggest that they confer risk of XFG mainly through exfoliation syndrome (XFS). About 25% of the general population is homozygous for the highest-risk haplotype, and their risk of suffering from XFG is more than 100 times that of individuals carrying only low-risk haplotypes. The population-attributable risk is more than 99%. The product of LOXL1 catalyzes the formation of elastin fibers found to be a major component of the lesions in XFG.
Comment In: Am J Ophthalmol. 2007 Dec;144(6):974-97518036875
Archaeal communities in mineral soils were compared between a boreal forest in Finland and cold-temperate forest in Japan using 16S rRNA gene-targeted high-throughput sequencing. In boreal soils, Thaumarchaeota Group 1.1c archaea predominated and Thaumarchaeota Group 1.1a-associated and Group 1.1b archaea were also detected. In temperate soils, Thaumarchaeota Group 1.1a-associated and Group 1.1b archaea were dominant members at the subsurface, whereas their dominancy was replaced by Thermoplasmata archaea at the subsoil. An analysis of the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A gene of Archaea also indicated the distribution of Thaumarchaeota Group 1.1a-associated and Group 1.1b archaea in these soils.
Cites: Environ Microbiol Rep. 2014 Feb;6(1):70-9 PMID 24596264