Insulin resistance is associated with hypertension by mechanisms likely involving the kidney. To determine how the major apical sodium transporter of the thick ascending limb, the bumetanide-sensitive Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) is regulated by high-fat feeding, we treated young male, Fischer 344 X Brown Norway (F344BN) rats for 8 wk with diets containing either normal (NF, 4%) or high (HF, 36%) fat, by weight, primarily as lard. HF-fed rats had impaired glucose tolerance, increased urine excretion of 8-isoprostane (a marker of oxidative stress), increased protein levels for NKCC2 (50-125%) and the renal outer medullary potassium channel (106%), as well as increased natriuretic response to furosemide (20-40%). To test the role of oxidative stress in this response, in study 2, rats were fed the NF or HF diet plus plain drinking water, or water containing N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (100 mg/l), or tempol, a superoxide dismutase mimetic (1 mmol/l). The combination of tempol with HF nullified the increase in medullary NKCC2, while l-NAME with HF led to the highest expression of medullary NKCC2 (to 498% of NF mean). However, neither of these drugs dramatically affected the elevated natriuretic response to furosemide with HF. Finally, l-NAME led to a marked increase in blood pressure (measured by radiotelemetry), which was significantly enhanced with HF. Mean arterial blood pressure at 7 wk was as follows (mmHg): NF, 100 +/- 2; NF plus l-NAME, 122 +/- 3; and HF plus l-NAME, 131 +/- 2. Overall, HF feeding increased the abundance of NKCC2. Inappropriately high sodium reabsorption in the thick ascending limb via NKCC2 may contribute to hypertension with insulin resistance.
In this study, evaluation of genome instability in individuals exposed to chemical compounds included detection of the genetic polymorphism of some xenobiotic metabolic enzymes (CYP1A1, CYP1E1, PON1, GSTM1, GSTT1), as well as measurement of oxidative state chemiluminescent variables and the level of cytogenetic damage. According to the study, the level of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes shows a strong correlation with PON54 left allele and GSTM1 null genotype, and can be described by the polynomial function of blood plasma luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. The frequencies of micronuclei in buccal epithelium displayed a weak association with GSTT1 null genotype.
Intravenous injection of the selective mu-opiate receptor agonist DAMGO (0.1 mg/kg, 15 min before isolation of the heart) improved resistance of isolated perfused rat heart to ischemia (45 min) and reperfusion (60 min) damages. In vivo administration of DAMGO prevented reperfusion-induced damages to cardiomyocytes and decreased the content of conjugated dienes in the myocardium during ischemia-reperfusion in vitro. Furthermore, stimulation of mu-opiate receptors promoted recovery of myocardial contractility during reoxygenation, but had no effect on heart resistance to free radical-induced damages during perfusion of isolated heart with a solution containing Fe2+ and ascorbic acid.
Use of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for removal of salmon lice in the aquaculture industry has created concern that non-target organisms might be affected during treatment scenarios. The aim of the present study was to examine the potential for H2O2 to produce oxidative stress and reduce survival in one of the most abundant zooplankton species in Norwegian coastal areas, the copepod Calanus finmarchicus. Copepods were subjected to two 96-hr tests: (1) acute toxicity test where mortality was determined and (2) treated copepods were exposed to concentrations below the No Observed Effect Concentration (0.75 mg/L) H2O2 and analyzed for antioxidant enzyme activities, as well as levels of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Compared to available and comparable LC50 values from the literature, our results suggest that C. finmarchicus is highly sensitive to H2O2. However, 96-hr exposure of C. finmarchicus to 0.75 mg H2O2/L did not significantly affect the antioxidant systems even though the concentration is just below the level where mortality is expected. Data suggest that aqueous H2O2 exposure did not cause cellular accumulation with associated oxidative stress, but rather produced acute effects on copepod surface (carapace). Further investigation is required to ensure that aqueous exposure during H2O2 treatment in salmon fish farms does not exert adverse effects on local non-target crustacean species and populations. In particular, studies on copepod developmental stages with a more permeable carapace are warranted.
Oxidative stress increases during unloading in muscle from young adult rats. The present study examined the markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme gene and protein expressions in medial gastrocnemius muscles of aged and young adult (30 and 6 mo of age) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats after 14 days of hindlimb suspension. Medial gastrocnemius muscle weight was decreased by approximately 30% in young adult and aged rats following suspension. When muscle weight was normalized to animal body weight, it was reduced by 12% and 22% in young adult and aged rats, respectively, after suspension. Comparisons between young adult and aged control animals demonstrated a 25% and 51% decline in muscle mass when expressed as absolute muscle weight and muscle weight normalized to the animal body weight, respectively. H(2)O(2) content was elevated by 43% while Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) protein content was reduced by 28% in suspended muscles compared with control muscles exclusively in the aged animals. Suspended muscles had greater content of malondialdehyde (MDA)/4-hydroxyalkenals (4-HAE) (29% and 58% increase in young adult and aged rats, respectively), nitrotyrosine (76% and 65% increase in young adult and aged rats, respectively), and catalase activity (69% and 43% increase in young adult and aged rats, respectively) relative to control muscles. Changes in oxidative stress markers MDA/4-HAE, H(2)O(2), and MnSOD protein contents in response to hindlimb unloading occurred in an age-dependent manner. These findings are consistent with the hypotheses that oxidative stress has a role in mediating disuse-induced and sarcopenia-associated muscle losses. Our data suggest that aging may predispose skeletal muscle to increased levels of oxidative stress both at rest and during unloading.
The aim of this work was a comparative study of the effects of spring diseases cytogenetic years of tick-borne encephalitis in elderly and young age due to differences in genes of glutathione-S-transferase. Surveyed by routine cytogenetics 120 patients with tick-borne encephalitis residents North of Tomsk region. We have taken in the study persons aged 20-35 years (Group 1) and 65-85 years old (Group 2). Material for study (buccal epithelium) was taken from each subject 3-5 times: 1st-2nd day after hospitalization, in 1 week, 1, 3 and 6 months. Tick-borne encephalitis infection causes a significantly large changes in cytogenetic regimens using buccal epithelium in the elderly than in younger patients. Restoring cytogenetic norms observed in a group of young in 3 months after hospitalization, in the elderly - in 6 months. When comparing cytogenetic effects of encephalitis shows: the young patients tick-borne encephalitis level by routine cytogenetics abnormal cells was significantly higher in carriers of inactive forms of gene GSTM1 (0)/GSTT1 (0) than containing active homozygous variants of these genes. Such patterns have not been noted in a group of elderly patients.
Here, we determine the influence of aging on multiple markers of oxidative stress in the aorta of adult (6-month), aged (30-month) and very aged (36-month) Fischer 344/NNiaHSdxBrown Norway/BiNia (F344/NxBN) rats. Compared to adults, increases in as determined by oxidation of hydroethidine (HE) to ethidium (Et) were increased 79.7+/-7.0% in 36-month aortae and this finding was highly correlated with increases in medal thickness (r=0.773, p
We report the influence of aging on multiple markers of oxidative-nitrosative stress in the heart of adult (6-month), aged (30-month) and very aged (36-month) Fischer 344/NNiaHSd x Brown Norway/BiNia (F344/NXBN) rats. Compared to adult (6-month) hearts, indices of oxidative (superoxide anion [O2*-], 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal [4-HNE]) and nitrosative (protein nitrotyrosylation) stress were 34.1 +/- 28.1%, 186 +/- 28.1% and 94 +/- 5.8% higher, respectively, in 36-month hearts and these findings were highly correlated with increases in left ventricular wall thickness (r > 0.669; r > 0.710 and P
A number of systems that generate oxygen free radicals and reactive aldehydic species are activated by excessive ethanol consumption. Recent studies from human alcoholics and from experimental animals have indicated that acetaldehyde and aldehydic products of lipid peroxidation, which are generated in such processes, can bind to proteins forming stable adducts. Adduct formation may lead to several adverse consequences, such as interference with protein function, stimulation of fibrogenesis, and induction of immune responses. The presence of protein adducts in the centrilobular region of the liver in alcohol abusers with an early phase of histological liver damage indicates that adduct formation is one of the key events in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. Dietary supplementation with fat and/or iron strikingly increases the amount of aldehyde-derived epitopes in the liver together with promotion of fibrogenesis.
To evaluate cardiovascular disease risk in First Nation youth with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or obesity by comparing pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines, markers of oxidative stress and the plasma phospholipid fatty acid profile.
Self-declared First Nation youth (12-15 yr) with T2DM (n = 24) as well as age-, gender-, and body mass index-matched controls (obese group; n = 19) and unmatched controls (control group; n = 34) were recruited from a pediatric diabetes clinic.
Plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha, ultrasensitive C-reactive protein, resistin, and total antioxidant status were not different among the three groups. Plasma total leptin, soluble leptin receptor, and free leptin were significantly higher in the T2DM group than the control group (p