Crude oil accidentally spilled into the marine environment undergoes natural weathering processes that result in oil components being dissolved into the water column or present in particulate form as dispersed oil droplets. Oil components dissolved in seawater are typically considered as more bioavailable to pelagic marine organisms and the main driver of crude oil toxicity, however, recent studies indicate that oil droplets may also contribute. The adhesion of crude oil droplets onto the eggs of pelagic fish species may cause enhanced transfer of oil components via the egg surface causing toxicity during the sensitive embryonic developmental stage. In the current study, we utilized an oil droplet dispersion generator to generate defined oil droplets sizes/concentrations and exposed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) to investigate if the potential for dispersed oil droplets to adhere onto the surface of eggs was species-dependent. The influence of a commercial chemical dispersant on the adhesion process was also studied. A key finding was that the adhesion of oil droplets was significantly higher for haddock than cod, highlighting key differences and exposure risks between the two species. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that the differences in oil droplet adhesion may be driven by the surface morphology of the eggs. Another important finding was that the adhesion capacity of oil droplets to fish eggs is significantly reduced (cod 37.3%, haddock 41.7%) in the presence of the chemical dispersant.
OBJECTIVES: To explore the effect of recombinant, human GH on follicular development and oocyte retrieval after gonadotropin stimulation with the addition of GH or placebo to a standard IVF treatment regimen. Further, to investigate whether GH is a more effective adjuvant if the standard treatment regimen is preceded by GH injections. DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled study. SETTING: The IVF unit at university hospital. PATIENTS: Forty normally ovulating women, age 25 to 38 years, with infertility because of tubal factors and being classified as "poor responders" with at least two previously performed and failed IVF attempts. INTERVENTIONS: Human, recombinant GH (Genotropin, Kabi Pharmacia, Uppsala, Sweden) or placebo (0.1 IU/kg body weight per day) was given SC as pretreatment during down regulation with GnRH and during stimulation with hMG according to the randomized protocol. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of oocytes retrieved after stimulation, total amount of gonadotropin used, time required for stimulation, number of follicles developing, rate of fertilization, and cleavage in vitro. Further, the quality of embryos, development of the endometrium, rate of clinical pregnancy, and serum and follicular fluid (FF) concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), and IGFBP-3 were estimated. RESULTS: The number of oocytes retrieved did not differ significantly between the groups, nor did the amount of hMG required for stimulation. The fertilization rate increased in patients who had received GH. Growth hormone caused a significant increase in serum and FF levels of IGF-I. An increase in serum IGFBP-3 could also be recorded in patients who had received GH. CONCLUSION: Although certain beneficial effects were noted in GH-treated patients, the overall results did not support GH as a clinically useful adjuvant treatment.
Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) were collected throughout Finland between 2013 and 2018 to determine species distributions. During the course of molecular identifications of specimens belonging to the Anopheles maculipennis complex, ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 sequences and link-reared specimens revealed the presence of Anopheles daciae Linton, Nicolescu & Harbach (n = 37), a new country record, as well as Anopheles messeae Falleroni (n = 19) in the collections. Although the sample size is low, distinctions are apparent in the distributions of these two species, with An. daciae present in south-eastern and central Finland, including the regions of Kanta-Häme, Pirkanmaa, Pohjois-Pohjanmaa, Päijät-Häme and Satakunta, and An. messeae present in the southern and south-eastern regions of Åland (Ahvenanmaa), Etelä-Savo, Kanta-Häme, Kymenlaakso, Päijät-Häme, Satakunta, Uusimaa and Varsinais-Suomi. All reports of An. messeae in Finland prior to 2018 should therefore be recognized as potentially being either An. messeae or An. daciae. Because these species are potential vectors of malarial protozoa, it is important to have full knowledge of their distributions across Europe, particularly in the face of climate warming.
In the Arctic, sea-ice plays a central role in the functioning of marine food webs and its rapid shrinking has large effects on the biota. It is thus crucial to assess the importance of sea-ice and ice-derived resources to Arctic marine species. Here, we used a multi-biomarker approach combining Highly Branched Isoprenoids (HBIs) with d13C and d15N to evaluate how much Arctic seabirds rely on sea-ice derived resources during the pre-laying period, and if changes in sea-ice extent and duration affect their investment in reproduction. Eggs of thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) and northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) were collected in the Canadian Arctic during four years of highly contrasting ice conditions, and analysed for HBIs, isotopic (carbon and nitrogen) and energetic composition. Murres heavily relied on ice-associated prey, and sea-ice was beneficial for this species which produced larger and more energy-dense eggs during icier years. In contrast, fulmars did not exhibit any clear association with sympagic communities and were not impacted by changes in sea ice. Murres, like other species more constrained in their response to sea-ice variations, therefore appear more sensitive to changes and may become the losers of future climate shifts in the Arctic, unlike more resilient species such as fulmars.
We simulate oil spills of 1500 and 4500m3/day lasting 14, 45, and 90days in the spawning grounds of the commercial fish species, Northeast Arctic cod. Modeling the life history of individual fish eggs and larvae, we predict deviations from the historical pattern of recruitment to the adult population due to toxic oil exposures. Reductions in survival for pelagic stages of cod were 0-10%, up to a maximum of 43%. These reductions resulted in a decrease in adult cod biomass of
The retail market share of organic eggs in Denmark is high, and the consumers expect high animal welfare standards in the organic production. Documentation of animal welfare is important, however, knowledge about the associations between animal-based welfare indicators is limited. The aims of the study were to investigate the associations between selected welfare indicators at two ages (peak and end of lay), and to examine the development with age of the chosen welfare indicators. The chosen welfare indicators were Ascaridia galli (roundworm) infection, Heterakis sp. (caecal worm) infection, keel bone damages, back feathering, body feathering, foot damages, comb colour and wounds on the body. An observational study with 12 organic egg farms was conducted in 2012 and 2013 with a total of 214 hens assessed individually at the peak and the end of lay. Insufficient data were obtained on helminth infection at the peak of lay. At the end of lay, all helminth infected hens were positive for A. galli, and only three of them had in addition a Heterakis sp. infection. Foot damages, pale combs and wounds on the body occurred at frequencies
Climate change could lead to mismatches between the reproductive cycles of marine organisms and their planktonic food. We tested this hypothesis by comparing shrimp (Pandalus borealis) egg hatching times and satellite-derived phytoplankton bloom dynamics throughout the North Atlantic. At large spatial and long temporal (10 years or longer) scales, hatching was correlated with the timing of the spring phytoplankton bloom. Annual egg development and hatching times were determined locally by bottom water temperature. We conclude that different populations of P. borealis have adapted to local temperatures and bloom timing, matching egg hatching to food availability under average conditions. This strategy is vulnerable to interannual oceanographic variability and long-term climatic changes.
Comment In: Science. 2009 May 8;324(5928):733-419423808