OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of a school-based intervention programme to reduce the prevalence of overweight in 6 to 10-year-old children. DESIGN: Cluster-randomized, controlled study. SUBJECTS: A total of 3135 boys and girls in grades 1-4 were included in the study. METHODS: Ten schools were selected in Stockholm county area and randomized to intervention (n=5) and control (n=5) schools. Low-fat dairy products and whole-grain bread were promoted and all sweets and sweetened drinks were eliminated in intervention schools. Physical activity (PA) was aimed to increase by 30 min day(-1) during school time and sedentary behaviour restricted during after school care time. PA was measured by accelerometry. Eating habits at home were assessed by parental report. Eating disorders were evaluated by self-report. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity decreased by 3.2% (from 20.3 to 17.1) in intervention schools compared with an increase of 2.8% (from 16.1 to 18.9) in control schools (P
Trend analyses of active commuting and potential variations in trends and association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk within subgroups are unknown.
To (a) describe trends in active commuting between 1998 and 2015 and (b) to study the association between different amounts of active commuting and the incidence risk of CVD in a large sample of Swedish workers, and analyses of potential variations across subgroups of socio-demographics, physical activity, and BMI.
A total of 318 309 participants (47% women, 18-74 years) who participated in a nationwide occupational health service screening between 1998 and 2015 were included. Commuting habits were self-reported, and data on first-time CVD events were derived from national registers.
Self-reported passive commuters decreased between 1998 and 2015 (64% to 56%), transferring to an increase in mainly moderate/high-dose active commuters (12% to 19%). Changes were seen in all subgroups. The characteristics and lifestyle habits of the typical passive and active commuter changed little over the study period. Low- and moderate/high-dose active commuters had significantly decreased risks for a first time CVD during follow-up. This was accentuated in men, middle-aged, and in participants with light physical work situations, irregular exercise habits, being overweight/obese, and with low fitness.
Increases in active commuting were observed between 1998 and 2015, however still leaving a majority who do not actively commute. As active commuting, regardless dose, is associated with a lower CVD risk, encouraging more people to actively commute may provide an easily accessible and time-efficient possibility to increase physical activity and health in the general population.
The purpose of this study was to provide some preliminary description of the Latin-Canadian community by reporting the socioeconomic status, physical activity, and weight status (i.e., healthy weight, overweight, or obese status) of Colombians newly immigrated to London, Ontario Canada. Face-to-face interviews were conducted on a convenience sample of 77 adult Colombian immigrant food bank users (46.8% men; mean age 39.9 yr., SD=11.8). Physical activity was gauged using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and self-report Body Mass Index, and sociodemographic data were collected. Of respondents, 47% had a university education, and 97% received social support. 61% met recommended levels of physical activity. Men were more active, being involved in about 130 min. more of exercise per week, and more men were overweight than women (63.9% versus 39.0%, respectively). Of respondents, 73% reported being less active than before coming to Canada. This pilot study indicates that Latin-Canadian immigrants are a vulnerable group in need of acculturational support. Further study is warranted.
International research has demonstrated that rural residency is a risk factor for childhood adiposity. The main aim of this study was to investigate the urban-rural gradient in overweight and obesity and whether the association differed by maternal education.
Height, weight and waist circumference (WC) were measured in a nationally representative sample of 3166 Norwegian eight-year-olds in 2010. Anthropometric measures were stratified by area of residence (urbanity) and maternal education. Risk estimates for overweight (including obesity) and waist-to-height ratio =0.5 were calculated by log-binomial regression.
Mean BMI and WC and risk estimates of overweight (including obesity) and waist-to-height ratio =0.5 were associated with both urbanity and maternal education. These associations were robust after mutual adjustment for each other. Furthermore, there was an indication of interaction between urbanity and maternal education, as trends of mean BMI and WC increased from urban to rural residence among children of low-educated mothers (p?=?0.01 for both BMI and WC), whereas corresponding trends for children from higher educational background were non-significant (p?>?0.30). However, formal tests of the interaction term urbanity by maternal education were non-significant (p-value for interaction was 0.29 for BMI and 0.31 for WC).
In this nationally representative study, children living rurally and children of low-educated mothers had higher mean BMI and waist circumference than children living in more urban areas and children of higher educated mothers.
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Physical activity may counteract the adverse effects of adiposity on cardiovascular mortality; however, the evidence of a similar effect on diabetes is sparse. This study examines whether physical activity may compensate for the adverse effect of adiposity on diabetes risk.
The study population consisted of 38 231 individuals aged 20 years or more who participated in two consecutive waves of the prospective longitudinal Nord-Trøndelag Health Study in Norway: in 1984-1986 and in 1995-1997. A Poisson regression model with SEs derived from robust variance was used to estimate adjusted risk ratios of diabetes between categories of body mass index and physical activity.
Risk of diabetes increased both with increasing body mass (Ptrend
To develop algorithm equations that could be used to adjust self-reported height and weight to elicit better estimates of actual BMI.
Linear regression analyses were performed to generate equations that could predict actual height and weight from self-reported data collected through telephone interviews on a representative sample of Canadians aged 18 years or older.
There were systematic biases in self-reported height and weight, leading to an underestimation of BMI. The application of our calibration equations to self-reported data produced closer estimates to actual rates of overweight and obesity.
We advocate the use of our correction equation whenever dealing with self-reported height and weight from telephone surveys to avoid potential distortions in estimating obesity prevalence.
High physical activity, low sedentary behavior and low consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages can be markers of a healthy lifestyle. We aim to observe longitudinal changes and secular trends in these lifestyle variables as well as in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in 7-to-9-year-old schoolchildren related to gender and socioeconomic position.
Three cross-sectional surveys were carried out on schoolchildren in grades 1 and 2 (7-to-9-year-olds) in 2008 (n = 833), 2010 (n = 1085), and 2013 (n = 1135). Information on children's level of physical activity, sedentary behavior, diet, and parent's education level was collected through parental questionnaires. Children's height and weight were also measured. Longitudinal measurements were carried out on a subsample (n = 678) which was included both in 2008 (7-to-9-year-olds) and 2010 (9-to-11-year-olds). BMI was used to classify children into overweight (including obese) and obese based on the International Obesity Task Force reference. Questionnaire reported maternal education level was used as a proxy for socioeconomic position (SEP).
Longitudinally, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages = 4 days/week increased from 7% to 16% in children with low SEP. Overall, sedentary behavior > 4 hours/day doubled from 14% to 31% (p
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The identification of spatial clusters of overweight and obesity can be a key indicator for targeting scarce public health resources. This paper examines sex-specific spatial patterns of overweight/obesity in Canada as well as investigates the presence of spatial clusters.
Using data on Body Mass Index (BMI) from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey (20 years and older) cycle 3.1, a cross-sectional ecological-level study was conducted. Sex-specific prevalence of overweight and obesity were first mapped to explore spatial patterns. In order to assess the degree of spatial dependence, exploratory spatial data analysis was performed using the Moran's I statistic and the Local Indicator of Spatial Association (LISA).
Results revealed marked geographical variation in overweight/obesity prevalence with higher values in the Northern and Atlantic health-regions and lower values in the Southern and Western health-regions of Canada. Significant positive spatial autocorrelation was found for both males and females, with significant clusters of high values or 'hot spots' of obesity in the Atlantic and Northern health-regions of Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Ontario.
Findings reveal overweight/obesity clusters and underscore the importance of geographically focused prevention strategies informed by population-specific needs.
Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Public Health Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. email@example.com
To compare overweight, obesity and thinness prevalences in adolescents born in 1979 and 1985 and to evaluate the influence of parental migration background.
A total of 2306 15- to 16-year-old girls and boys in Gothenburg, Sweden, participated in two cross-sectional surveys (1994 and 2000). Height and weight were measured and interviews about parental origin were conducted. Overweight and obesity were classified according to International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) and WHO. Thinness was classified according to Cole.
Among girls, the prevalence of thinness decreased, 8.4% vs. 4.7%. The prevalence of overweight, including obesity, according to IOTF criteria, was 11.8% and 13.7% in 1994 and 2000, respectively. The corresponding figures according to WHO criteria were 14.5% and 17.5%. No significant changes occurred between cohorts in prevalences of overweight and obesity. However, when interaction between survey year and origin was tested, there was a significant difference in overweight according to WHO criteria (p=0.022).
A shift entailing increased risk for overweight in adolescents of non-Nordic origin was observed, while no changes occurred in the general population. Individual background factors are important to consider both for correct conclusions about health development in the population and for identification of target groups for health-promoting interventions.