This cross sectional study aims to investigate the associations between ectopic lipid accumulation in liver and skeletal muscle and biochemical measures, estimates of insulin resistance, anthropometry, and blood pressure in lean and overweight/obese children.
Fasting plasma glucose, serum lipids, serum insulin, and expressions of insulin resistance, anthropometry, blood pressure, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of liver and muscle fat were obtained in 327 Danish children and adolescents aged 8-18 years.
In 287 overweight/obese children, the prevalences of hepatic and muscular steatosis were 31% and 68%, respectively, whereas the prevalences in 40 lean children were 3% and 10%, respectively. A multiple regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index z-score (BMI SDS), and pubertal development showed that the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 4.2 (95%CI: [1.8; 10.2], p = 0.0009) when hepatic steatosis was present. Comparing the simultaneous presence of hepatic and muscular steatosis with no presence of steatosis, the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 5.8 (95%CI: [2.0; 18.6], p = 0.002). No significant associations between muscle fat and dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, or blood pressure were observed. Liver and muscle fat, adjusted for age, sex, BMI SDS, and pubertal development, associated to BMI SDS and glycosylated hemoglobin, while only liver fat associated to visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue and intramyocellular lipid associated inversely to high density lipoprotein cholesterol.
Hepatic steatosis is associated with dyslipidemia and liver and muscle fat depositions are linked to obesity-related metabolic dysfunctions, especially glycosylated hemoglobin, in children and adolescents, which suggest an increased cardiovascular disease risk.
Cites: Child Obes. 2012 Dec;8(6):533-4123181919
Cites: Int J Pediatr Obes. 2011 Aug;6(3-4):188-9621529264
Cites: Int J Obes (Lond). 2014 Jan;38(1):40-523828099
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of a school-based intervention programme to reduce the prevalence of overweight in 6 to 10-year-old children. DESIGN: Cluster-randomized, controlled study. SUBJECTS: A total of 3135 boys and girls in grades 1-4 were included in the study. METHODS: Ten schools were selected in Stockholm county area and randomized to intervention (n=5) and control (n=5) schools. Low-fat dairy products and whole-grain bread were promoted and all sweets and sweetened drinks were eliminated in intervention schools. Physical activity (PA) was aimed to increase by 30 min day(-1) during school time and sedentary behaviour restricted during after school care time. PA was measured by accelerometry. Eating habits at home were assessed by parental report. Eating disorders were evaluated by self-report. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity decreased by 3.2% (from 20.3 to 17.1) in intervention schools compared with an increase of 2.8% (from 16.1 to 18.9) in control schools (P
The Alaska Department of Health and Social Services implemented the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 1990 incooperation with the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The system gathers information about the health-related lifestyle choices of Alaskan adults related to leading causes of death such as heart disease, cancer and injury. The program is part of an ongoing national data collection system. Results are analyzed each year to improve our understanding of Alaskanhealth habits and to measure progress toward national and state health objectives. This report summarizes survey findings from1991 to 1996 and compares the results to selected national health objectives presented in the Healthy People 2000 publication.
Behavior and lifestyle play an important part in determining our
health status and lifespan. Every day Alaskans make lifestyle choices that profoundly affect their health. Although heredity and environment play a part, the leading causes of death in Alaska (heart disease, cancer and unintentional injuries) are closely related to lifestyle factors. Lifestyle and behavioral factors that affect health include such things as diet, exercise, use of alcohol and
tobacco, and preventive health practices. Many premature deaths
and disabilities could be prevented through better control of these
behavioral risk factors.
Behavior and lifestyle play an important part in determining ourhealth status and lifespan. Every day Alaskans make lifestyle choices that profoundly affect their health. Although heredity and environment play a part, the leading causes of death in Alaska (heart disease, cancer and unintentional injuries) are closely related to lifestyle factors. Lifestyle and behavioral factors that affect health include such things as diet, exercise, use of alcohol andtobacco, and preventive health practices. Many premature deathsand disabilities could be prevented through better control of thesebehavioral risk factors.
Modification of risk behaviors that contribute to chronic disease,premature death and impaired quality of life is an important public health challenge. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) collects information on risk factors, chronic disease prevalence and preventive practices that is essential for the development of chronic disease prevention and health promotion efforts aimed at modifying key risk factors. The Stateof Alaska began surveillance using the BRFSS in 1991 and has continued yearly since. The Alaska BRFSS is a collaborative project of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Alaska Division of Public Health.
Data is lacking on the reliability of weight and height for young children as reported by parents participating in population-based studies. We analysed the accuracy of parental reports of children's weights and heights as estimates of body mass index, and evaluated the factors associated with the misclassification of overweight and obese children.
Analyses were conducted on a population-based birth cohort of 1549 4-year-old children from the province of Québec (Canada) in 2002. Mothers reported weights and heights for the children as part of the regular annual data collection. Within the following 3 months, children's weights and heights were measured at home as part of a nutrition survey.
This study indicates that mothers overestimate their children's weight more than their height, resulting in an overestimation of overweight children of more than 3% in the studied population. Only 58% of the children were reported as overweight/obese with reported values. Maternal misreporting is more important for boys than girls, and for low socioeconomic status children compared with high socioeconomic status children.
Research on the prevalence of overweight and obesity has often used self-reported measures of height and weight to estimate BMI. However, the results emphasize the importance of collecting measured data in childhood studies of overweight and obesity at the population level.
The purpose of this study was to provide some preliminary description of the Latin-Canadian community by reporting the socioeconomic status, physical activity, and weight status (i.e., healthy weight, overweight, or obese status) of Colombians newly immigrated to London, Ontario Canada. Face-to-face interviews were conducted on a convenience sample of 77 adult Colombian immigrant food bank users (46.8% men; mean age 39.9 yr., SD=11.8). Physical activity was gauged using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and self-report Body Mass Index, and sociodemographic data were collected. Of respondents, 47% had a university education, and 97% received social support. 61% met recommended levels of physical activity. Men were more active, being involved in about 130 min. more of exercise per week, and more men were overweight than women (63.9% versus 39.0%, respectively). Of respondents, 73% reported being less active than before coming to Canada. This pilot study indicates that Latin-Canadian immigrants are a vulnerable group in need of acculturational support. Further study is warranted.
The rising prevalence of overweight and obesity is a worldwide public health challenge. Pregnancy and beyond is a potentially important window for future weight gain in women. We investigated associations between maternal adherence to the New Nordic diet (NND) during pregnancy and maternal BMI trajectories from delivery to 8 years post delivery. Data are from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. Pregnant women from all of Norway were recruited between 1999 and 2008, and 55 056 are included in the present analysis. A previously constructed diet score, NND, was used to assess adherence to the diet. The score favours intake of Nordic fruits, root vegetables, cabbages, potatoes, oatmeal porridge, whole grains, wild fish, game, berries, milk and water. Linear spline multi-level models were used to estimate the association. We found that women with higher adherence to the NND pattern during pregnancy had on average lower post-partum BMI trajectories and slightly less weight gain up to 8 years post delivery compared with the lower NND adherers. These associations remained after adjustment for physical activity, education, maternal age, smoking and parity (mean diff at delivery (high v. low adherers): -0·3 kg/m2; 95 % CI -0·4, -0·2; mean diff at 8 years: -0·5 kg/m2; 95 % CI -0·6, -0·4), and were not explained by differences in energy intake or by exclusive breast-feeding duration. Similar patterns of associations were seen with trajectories of overweight/obesity as the outcome. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the NND may have beneficial properties to long-term weight regulation among women post-partum.
International research has demonstrated that rural residency is a risk factor for childhood adiposity. The main aim of this study was to investigate the urban-rural gradient in overweight and obesity and whether the association differed by maternal education.
Height, weight and waist circumference (WC) were measured in a nationally representative sample of 3166 Norwegian eight-year-olds in 2010. Anthropometric measures were stratified by area of residence (urbanity) and maternal education. Risk estimates for overweight (including obesity) and waist-to-height ratio =0.5 were calculated by log-binomial regression.
Mean BMI and WC and risk estimates of overweight (including obesity) and waist-to-height ratio =0.5 were associated with both urbanity and maternal education. These associations were robust after mutual adjustment for each other. Furthermore, there was an indication of interaction between urbanity and maternal education, as trends of mean BMI and WC increased from urban to rural residence among children of low-educated mothers (p?=?0.01 for both BMI and WC), whereas corresponding trends for children from higher educational background were non-significant (p?>?0.30). However, formal tests of the interaction term urbanity by maternal education were non-significant (p-value for interaction was 0.29 for BMI and 0.31 for WC).
In this nationally representative study, children living rurally and children of low-educated mothers had higher mean BMI and waist circumference than children living in more urban areas and children of higher educated mothers.
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