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1H-MRS Measured Ectopic Fat in Liver and Muscle in Danish Lean and Obese Children and Adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273208
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(8):e0135018
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Cilius Esmann Fonvig
Elizaveta Chabanova
Ehm Astrid Andersson
Johanne Dam Ohrt
Oluf Pedersen
Torben Hansen
Henrik S Thomsen
Jens-Christian Holm
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(8):e0135018
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Anthropometry
Blood Glucose - analysis
Blood pressure
Body mass index
Body Weight
Cardiovascular Diseases - physiopathology
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark
Dyslipidemias - blood
Fatty Liver - pathology
Female
Humans
Insulin - blood
Insulin Resistance
Intra-Abdominal Fat - pathology
Linear Models
Lipids - blood
Liver - metabolism - pathology
Male
Muscles - pathology
Overweight
Pediatric Obesity - blood - pathology
Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Puberty
Sex Factors
Subcutaneous Fat - pathology
Abstract
This cross sectional study aims to investigate the associations between ectopic lipid accumulation in liver and skeletal muscle and biochemical measures, estimates of insulin resistance, anthropometry, and blood pressure in lean and overweight/obese children.
Fasting plasma glucose, serum lipids, serum insulin, and expressions of insulin resistance, anthropometry, blood pressure, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of liver and muscle fat were obtained in 327 Danish children and adolescents aged 8-18 years.
In 287 overweight/obese children, the prevalences of hepatic and muscular steatosis were 31% and 68%, respectively, whereas the prevalences in 40 lean children were 3% and 10%, respectively. A multiple regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index z-score (BMI SDS), and pubertal development showed that the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 4.2 (95%CI: [1.8; 10.2], p = 0.0009) when hepatic steatosis was present. Comparing the simultaneous presence of hepatic and muscular steatosis with no presence of steatosis, the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 5.8 (95%CI: [2.0; 18.6], p = 0.002). No significant associations between muscle fat and dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, or blood pressure were observed. Liver and muscle fat, adjusted for age, sex, BMI SDS, and pubertal development, associated to BMI SDS and glycosylated hemoglobin, while only liver fat associated to visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue and intramyocellular lipid associated inversely to high density lipoprotein cholesterol.
Hepatic steatosis is associated with dyslipidemia and liver and muscle fat depositions are linked to obesity-related metabolic dysfunctions, especially glycosylated hemoglobin, in children and adolescents, which suggest an increased cardiovascular disease risk.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26252778 View in PubMed
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A 4-year, cluster-randomized, controlled childhood obesity prevention study: STOPP.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature99038
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2009 Apr;33(4):408-17
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2009
Author
C. Marcus
G. Nyberg
A. Nordenfelt
M. Karpmyr
J. Kowalski
U. Ekelund
Author Affiliation
Division of Pediatrics, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, National Childhood Obesity Centre, Stockholm, Sweden. claude.marcus@ki.se
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2009 Apr;33(4):408-17
Date
Apr-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anthropometry
Child
Cluster analysis
Female
Health Promotion - organization & administration
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Obesity - epidemiology - prevention & control
Overweight - epidemiology - prevention & control
Parents - psychology
Physical Fitness - psychology
Prevalence
Risk Reduction Behavior
School Health Services
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of a school-based intervention programme to reduce the prevalence of overweight in 6 to 10-year-old children. DESIGN: Cluster-randomized, controlled study. SUBJECTS: A total of 3135 boys and girls in grades 1-4 were included in the study. METHODS: Ten schools were selected in Stockholm county area and randomized to intervention (n=5) and control (n=5) schools. Low-fat dairy products and whole-grain bread were promoted and all sweets and sweetened drinks were eliminated in intervention schools. Physical activity (PA) was aimed to increase by 30 min day(-1) during school time and sedentary behaviour restricted during after school care time. PA was measured by accelerometry. Eating habits at home were assessed by parental report. Eating disorders were evaluated by self-report. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity decreased by 3.2% (from 20.3 to 17.1) in intervention schools compared with an increase of 2.8% (from 16.1 to 18.9) in control schools (P
PubMed ID
19290010 View in PubMed
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1991-1996: Alaska's progress towards the goals of Healthy People 2000

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature88238
Source
Alaska's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 6(1)
Publication Type
Report
Date
Feb-1998
  1 website  
Author Affiliation
State of Alaska Department of Health and Social Services
Source
Alaska's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 6(1)
Date
Feb-1998
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Report
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Behavioral risk factors
Cholesterol screening
Cigarette smoking
Diabetes
Fruit and vegetable consumption
Heart disease
Inflluenza amd pneumonia immunizations
Mammography and clinical breast exams
Overweight
Pap tests
Physical activity
Proctoscopic exams
Safety belt use
Abstract
The Alaska Department of Health and Social Services implemented the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 1990 in cooperation with the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The system gathers information about the health-related lifestyle choices of Alaskan adults related to leading causes of death such as heart disease, cancer and injury. The program is part of an ongoing national data collection system. Results are analyzed each year to improve our understanding of Alaskan health habits and to measure progress toward national and state health objectives. This report summarizes survey findings from 1991 to 1996 and compares the results to selected national health objectives presented in the Healthy People 2000 publication.
Online Resources
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1994 behavioral risk factor survey highlights

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature88229
Source
Alaska's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 4(1)
Publication Type
Report
Date
May-1996
  1 website  
Author Affiliation
State of Alaska Department of Health and Social Services
Source
Alaska's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 4(1)
Date
May-1996
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Report
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Alcohol use
Behavioral risk factors
Breast cancer
Cervical cancer
Chronic Disease
Diabetes
Health care coverage
Health checkups
HIV/AIDS
Nutrition
Overweight
Physical activity
Premature death
Sedentary lifestyle
Tobacco use
Abstract
Behavior and lifestyle play an important part in determining our health status and lifespan. Every day Alaskans make lifestyle choices that profoundly affect their health. Although heredity and environment play a part, the leading causes of death in Alaska (heart disease, cancer and unintentional injuries) are closely related to lifestyle factors. Lifestyle and behavioral factors that affect health include such things as diet, exercise, use of alcohol and tobacco, and preventive health practices. Many premature deaths and disabilities could be prevented through better control of these behavioral risk factors.
Online Resources
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1995 behavioral risk factor survey highlights

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature88230
Source
Alaska's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 5(1)
Publication Type
Report
Date
April-1997
  1 website  
Author Affiliation
State of Alaska Department of Health and Social Services
Source
Alaska's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 5(1)
Date
April-1997
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Report
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Adult immunizations
Alcohol use
Behavioral risk factors
Breast cancer screening
Cervical cancer screening
Cholesterol screening
Chronic Disease
Colorectal cancer screening
Diabetes
Health care coverage
HIV/AIDS
Hypertension
Overweight
Premature death
Safety belt use
Tobacco use
Abstract
Behavior and lifestyle play an important part in determining our health status and lifespan. Every day Alaskans make lifestyle choices that profoundly affect their health. Although heredity and environment play a part, the leading causes of death in Alaska (heart disease, cancer and unintentional injuries) are closely related to lifestyle factors. Lifestyle and behavioral factors that affect health include such things as diet, exercise, use of alcohol and tobacco, and preventive health practices. Many premature deaths and disabilities could be prevented through better control of these behavioral risk factors.
Online Resources
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2007 behavioral risk factor survey highlights

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature88236
Source
Alaska's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
Publication Type
Report
Date
2007
  1 website  
Author Affiliation
State of Alaska Department of Health and Social Services
Source
Alaska's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
Date
2007
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Report
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Arthritis
Asthma
Binge drinking
Cardiovascular disease
Chronic Disease
Diabetes
Health care coverage
Nutrition and physical activity
Overweight/Obese
Premature death
Quality of Life
Tobacco use
Abstract
Modification of risk behaviors that contribute to chronic disease, premature death and impaired quality of life is an important public health challenge. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) collects information on risk factors, chronic disease prevalence and preventive practices that is essential for the development of chronic disease prevention and health promotion efforts aimed at modifying key risk factors. The State of Alaska began surveillance using the BRFSS in 1991 and has continued yearly since. The Alaska BRFSS is a collaborative project of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Alaska Division of Public Health.
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Accuracy of maternal reports of pre-schoolers' weights and heights as estimates of BMI values.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature163500
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2007 Feb;36(1):132-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2007
Author
Lise Dubois
Manon Girad
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, University of Ottawa, Institute at Population Health, 1 Stewart Street, Office 303, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. lise.dubois@uottawa.ca
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2007 Feb;36(1):132-8
Date
Feb-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Body Height
Body mass index
Body Weight
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Educational Status
Emigration and Immigration
Female
Humans
Male
Mothers - psychology
Obesity - epidemiology
Overweight
Population Surveillance - methods
Quebec - epidemiology
Rural Health
Sex Factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Urban health
Abstract
Data is lacking on the reliability of weight and height for young children as reported by parents participating in population-based studies. We analysed the accuracy of parental reports of children's weights and heights as estimates of body mass index, and evaluated the factors associated with the misclassification of overweight and obese children.
Analyses were conducted on a population-based birth cohort of 1549 4-year-old children from the province of Québec (Canada) in 2002. Mothers reported weights and heights for the children as part of the regular annual data collection. Within the following 3 months, children's weights and heights were measured at home as part of a nutrition survey.
This study indicates that mothers overestimate their children's weight more than their height, resulting in an overestimation of overweight children of more than 3% in the studied population. Only 58% of the children were reported as overweight/obese with reported values. Maternal misreporting is more important for boys than girls, and for low socioeconomic status children compared with high socioeconomic status children.
Research on the prevalence of overweight and obesity has often used self-reported measures of height and weight to estimate BMI. However, the results emphasize the importance of collecting measured data in childhood studies of overweight and obesity at the population level.
PubMed ID
17510077 View in PubMed
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Activity and obesity of Colombian immigrants in Canada who use a food bank.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature159910
Source
Percept Mot Skills. 2007 Oct;105(2):681-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2007
Author
Victor Ng
Timothy J Rush
Meizi He
Jennifer D Irwin
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario.
Source
Percept Mot Skills. 2007 Oct;105(2):681-7
Date
Oct-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acculturation
Adult
Aged
Colombia - ethnology
Emigrants and Immigrants - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Ethnic Groups - psychology
Exercise - psychology
Female
Food Services - utilization
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - epidemiology - ethnology - psychology
Ontario
Overweight - epidemiology - ethnology - psychology
Questionnaires
Sex Factors
Social Support
Socioeconomic Factors
Utilization Review - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to provide some preliminary description of the Latin-Canadian community by reporting the socioeconomic status, physical activity, and weight status (i.e., healthy weight, overweight, or obese status) of Colombians newly immigrated to London, Ontario Canada. Face-to-face interviews were conducted on a convenience sample of 77 adult Colombian immigrant food bank users (46.8% men; mean age 39.9 yr., SD=11.8). Physical activity was gauged using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and self-report Body Mass Index, and sociodemographic data were collected. Of respondents, 47% had a university education, and 97% received social support. 61% met recommended levels of physical activity. Men were more active, being involved in about 130 min. more of exercise per week, and more men were overweight than women (63.9% versus 39.0%, respectively). Of respondents, 73% reported being less active than before coming to Canada. This pilot study indicates that Latin-Canadian immigrants are a vulnerable group in need of acculturational support. Further study is warranted.
PubMed ID
18065093 View in PubMed
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Adherence to the New Nordic Diet during pregnancy and subsequent maternal weight development: a study conducted in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299175
Source
Br J Nutr. 2018 06; 119(11):1286-1294
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
06-2018
Author
Marianne Skreden
Elisabet R Hillesund
Andrew K Wills
Anne Lise Brantsæter
Elling Bere
Nina C Øverby
Author Affiliation
1Department of Public Health, Sport and Nutrition,University of Agder,PO Box 422,4604 Kristiansand,Norway.
Source
Br J Nutr. 2018 06; 119(11):1286-1294
Date
06-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Child
Diet
Diet Surveys
Female
Humans
Male
Mothers
Norway - epidemiology
Overweight
Pregnancy
Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Risk factors
Weight Gain
Abstract
The rising prevalence of overweight and obesity is a worldwide public health challenge. Pregnancy and beyond is a potentially important window for future weight gain in women. We investigated associations between maternal adherence to the New Nordic diet (NND) during pregnancy and maternal BMI trajectories from delivery to 8 years post delivery. Data are from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. Pregnant women from all of Norway were recruited between 1999 and 2008, and 55 056 are included in the present analysis. A previously constructed diet score, NND, was used to assess adherence to the diet. The score favours intake of Nordic fruits, root vegetables, cabbages, potatoes, oatmeal porridge, whole grains, wild fish, game, berries, milk and water. Linear spline multi-level models were used to estimate the association. We found that women with higher adherence to the NND pattern during pregnancy had on average lower post-partum BMI trajectories and slightly less weight gain up to 8 years post delivery compared with the lower NND adherers. These associations remained after adjustment for physical activity, education, maternal age, smoking and parity (mean diff at delivery (high v. low adherers): -0·3 kg/m2; 95 % CI -0·4, -0·2; mean diff at 8 years: -0·5 kg/m2; 95 % CI -0·6, -0·4), and were not explained by differences in energy intake or by exclusive breast-feeding duration. Similar patterns of associations were seen with trajectories of overweight/obesity as the outcome. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the NND may have beneficial properties to long-term weight regulation among women post-partum.
PubMed ID
29770760 View in PubMed
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Adiposity among children in Norway by urbanity and maternal education: a nationally representative study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107305
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:842
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Anna Biehl
Ragnhild Hovengen
Else-Karin Grøholt
Jøran Hjelmesæth
Bjørn Heine Strand
Haakon E Meyer
Author Affiliation
Division of Epidemiology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P,O, Box 4404, Nydalen, 0403 Oslo, Norway. anna.biehl@fhi.no.
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:842
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anthropometry
Body Composition
Body mass index
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Educational Status
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Incidence
Male
Mothers - education
Norway - epidemiology
Overweight - epidemiology
Pediatric Obesity - diagnosis - epidemiology
Public Health
Risk assessment
Rural Population
Socioeconomic Factors
Urban Population
Waist Circumference
Waist-Hip Ratio
Abstract
International research has demonstrated that rural residency is a risk factor for childhood adiposity. The main aim of this study was to investigate the urban-rural gradient in overweight and obesity and whether the association differed by maternal education.
Height, weight and waist circumference (WC) were measured in a nationally representative sample of 3166 Norwegian eight-year-olds in 2010. Anthropometric measures were stratified by area of residence (urbanity) and maternal education. Risk estimates for overweight (including obesity) and waist-to-height ratio =0.5 were calculated by log-binomial regression.
Mean BMI and WC and risk estimates of overweight (including obesity) and waist-to-height ratio =0.5 were associated with both urbanity and maternal education. These associations were robust after mutual adjustment for each other. Furthermore, there was an indication of interaction between urbanity and maternal education, as trends of mean BMI and WC increased from urban to rural residence among children of low-educated mothers (p?=?0.01 for both BMI and WC), whereas corresponding trends for children from higher educational background were non-significant (p?>?0.30). However, formal tests of the interaction term urbanity by maternal education were non-significant (p-value for interaction was 0.29 for BMI and 0.31 for WC).
In this nationally representative study, children living rurally and children of low-educated mothers had higher mean BMI and waist circumference than children living in more urban areas and children of higher educated mothers.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24028668 View in PubMed
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951 records – page 1 of 96.