The purpose of the presented experiments was to study the possibility of using the Brown Norway rat as a model for food allergy in our laboratory. Specific serum IgE against ovalbumin (OVA) was induced after dosing male and female Brown Norway rats daily by gavage for 35 days. The influence of various preparations of allergen: OVA grade II, OVA grade V, and fresh egg white, age (4 versus 8 weeks), dosing volumes, and animal suppliers was studied. A general finding was that females had statistically significantly higher specific IgE and IgG titres and number of responders than males. Egg white preparation, age, dosing volume, and animal supplier did not statistically significantly influence the median IgE and IgG titres and number of responders. The difference between immune responses in males and females could not be attributed to variations in daily intake of OVA or exposure via the lung. In our hands, the oral Brown rat food allergy model gives rise to a moderate number of IgE responders, 13-38 and 38-75% in males and females, respectively. For further experiments with this model in our laboratory, females seem the sex of choice.
Anaphylactic shock is an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-dependent hypersensitivity. Biological tests like leucocyte histamine release (LHR) and human basophil activation (HBA), frequently used in human allergy, reflect both the amount of IgE fixed on cells and the cellular reactivity. To assess whether serum-specific IgE from Brown Norway (BN) rats prepared for ovalbumin (OVA)-induced anaphylactic shocks can activate human basophils which has a potential interest in experimental allergy: such a test could rapidly assert an IgE sensitization in laboratory animals genetically T-helper 2 (Th2)-predisposed. Rats (n = 39) were immunized three times (day 0, day 5 and day 21) with OVA injected subcutaneously. One week after the third immunization, a shock was induced with an intravenous (i.v.) bolus of OVA. Sensitization was assessed by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) test and dosages of serum IgE antibodies anti-OVA by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Blood basophils were counted before and during the shock. Before the shock induction (at day 21), an LHR test was performed on rat blood, and human basophils were sensitized with rat sera. HBA was demonstrated by the increase in the percentage of cells expressing CD63 antigen membrane, measured by flow cytometry. Twenty-one days after the first subcutaneous (s.c.) immunization, the rat serum induced a significant HBA. HBA was observed neither with the same serum previously heated nor with the serum from nonimmunized rats (NIRs). OVA-specific IgEs were significantly increased in immunized rat (IR) serum. The PCA test was negative when the serum was previously heated (56 degrees C). We never observed any circulating basophils, and LHR test was negative. After OVA i.v. administration, all IRs died rapidly. HBA testing strongly suggests a mediation by specific IgE in the increase of CD63 in BN rats. Thus, HBA test seems useful in assessing whether an experimental allergy was induced in animals genetically predisposed to an immune response, Th2-mediated, like BN rat. We also conclude that rat basophil activation does not participate in the histamine release during anaphylactic shock in sensitized BN rats.
To study the humoral immune response to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ovalbumin (OA) in children with newly diagnosed insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM).
We examined serum samples from 505 children 0.8-14.9 years of age with newly diagnosed IDDM for antibodies to BSA and OA by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We also had two control groups: 85 unrelated control children (0.8-7.1 years of age) and 395 nondiabetic siblings (3.0-14.9 years of age). The specificity of antibodies detected in ELISA was confirmed by immunoblotting in a subset of sera with varying levels of antibodies.
BACKGROUND: No adequate enteral sensitization models are available to study food allergy and the allergenicity of food proteins. To further validate an enteral brown Norway (BN) rat sensitization model under development, we studied specific protein recognition to determine whether a comparable pattern of proteins is recognized by the rat immune system and the human immune system. METHODS: The animals were exposed to either ovalbumin as a positive reference control, hen's egg-white-protein extract, or a cow's milk preparation by daily gavage dosing (0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, or 15 mg protein per rat/day) for 9 weeks. No adjuvants were used during the sensitization studies. The specificities of antibodies against hen's egg-white proteins or cow's-milk proteins in sera from orally sensitized rats and food-allergic patients were studied and compared by immunoblotting. RESULTS: The IgG and IgE antibodies to hen's egg-white proteins and cow's-milk proteins present in sera from orally sensitized rats and food-allergic patients showed a comparable pattern of protein recognition. CONCLUSIONS: Upon daily intragastric exposure to food allergens, the specificities of the induced antibody responses in the BN rat resemble those found in food-allergic patients. These studies add further support to the hypothesis that the BN rat may provide a suitable animal model for food allergy research and research on the allergenicity of food proteins.
As TEI-9874, 2-(4-(6-cyclohexyloxy-2-naphtyloxy)phenylacetamide)ben zoic acid reduces allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro, we evaluated its potency on an allergen-induced asthmatic model in Brown-Norway rats. Inhaled ovalbumin induced the immediate-phase asthmatic response, the late-phase asthmatic response, the infiltration of leukocytes into bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and an increase of serum anti-ovalbumin IgE. These parameters were suppressed by the treatment with TEI-9874 (3, 10, and 30 mg/kg p.o.). The ovalbumin-induced airway hyperresponsiveness was prevented by TEI-9874 (30 mg/kg p.o.). Furthermore, the suppression of the immediate-phase asthmatic response and the late-phase asthmatic response by TEI-9874 was almost completely extinguished by the exogenous administration of rat anti-ovalbumin antiserum. These results indicate that the efficacy of TEI-9874 on the asthmatic response is mainly mediated by the suppression of allergen-specific IgE production and TEI-9874 appears to be a good candidate as therapy for IgE-mediated allergic asthma.
BACKGROUND: A study was performed to compare the effects of immunization with ragweed pollen (RW) in two different adjuvants on the characteristics of a previously described model of experimental immune-mediated blepharoconjunctivitis (EC) in rats. METHODS: Lewis or Brown Norway (BN) rats were immunized with 100 microg of RW in emulsion with aluminum hydroxide [Al(OH)3] or complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Three weeks later, the animals were challenged with eye drops containing RW in PBS. Twenty-four hours after topical challenge, eyes, blood, and lymph nodes were obtained for histology, measurement of antigen-specific antibodies, and proliferation or cytokine assays, respectively. In addition to active immunization, recipients of RW-primed lymph node cells were challenged and evaluated as above. RESULTS: RW in both adjuvants induced infiltration with predominantly mononuclear cells in Lewis rats and eosinophils in BN rats. As well as active immunization, eosinophils were detected only in BN rats by adoptive transfer of cells. Lymphocyte proliferative responses to RW were high in immunized Lewis rats when CFA was used as an adjuvant. In contrast, proliferative responses in BN rats were higher when Al(OH)3 was used. RW-specific IgE was detected only in BN rats. There were no significant differences in RW-specific IgG1/IgG2a ratio among the four groups. Lewis rats had higher level of RW-specific interferon-gamma in the culture supernatant. CONCLUSIONS: The characteristics of EC are different in Lewis and BN rats, dependent on the genetic background of the rat strains. The response to RW was similar to other previously used antigens, such as ovalbumin.
PURPOSE: Experimental immune-mediated blepharoconjunctivitis (EC) was induced in Lewis rats by immunization with ovalbumin (OVA) in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) or aluminum hydroxide [Al(OH)3]. To investigate the affect of genetic factors on the susceptibility of EC, we tested different strains of rats for the development of EC. METHODS: Lewis and Brown Norway (BN) rats were immunized once with 100 microg of OVA in CFA or Al(OH)3. Three weeks later they were challenged with OVA in eye drops; 24 hours after the challenge they were sacrificed and their eyes, blood, and lymph nodes were harvested for histological studies, measurement of OVA-specific antibodies (IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, IgE), and proliferation or cytokine assay, respectively. ELISA was used to detect OVA-specific IgG; passive cutaneous anaphylaxis was used for detecting IgE. RESULTS: EC, OVA-specific IgG, and cellular immunity were induced in Lewis rats by using either adjuvant, whereas IgE was not produced by either adjuvant. In contrast, IgE was produced in BN rats using either adjuvant, whereas cellular immunity was evoked only when CFA was used. Less cellular infiltration as well as cellular proliferation was detected in BN rats immunized with Al(OH)3. In both strains, Al(OH)3 induced a higher IgG1/IgG2a ratio than did CFA. More interferon-gamma by stimulation with OVA was noted in Lewis rats compared to BN rats, whereas interleukin-4 was detected only in BN rats. CONCLUSIONS: The severity of EC evaluated by cellular infiltration was dependent on OVA-specific cellular immunity. Genetic background is more important than adjuvants in determining the nature of EC and immunity.
The mechanism of hyposensitization in bronchial asthma has not been fully elucidated. We established a hyposensitization model of bronchial asthma in rats and examined airway responses and immunological parameters. Brown Norway rats were sensitized by a subcutaneous injection of ovalbumin (OA) at day 1 and by the inhalation of 2% OA aerosol at day 15. Animals were hyposensitized by intraperitoneal injections of OA from day 17 to day 22. They were challenged with OA or acethylcholine (Ach) aerosol at day 23 and changes in intratracheal pressure were recorded. Lungs were lavaged and OA-induced proliferative responses by blood lymphocytes were examined for animals without aerosol challenge at day 23. OA-specific serum IgE levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hyposensitization significantly reduced the OA-induced immediate airway response, accumulation of CD4+ lymphocytes and eosinophils recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage, and the OA-induced proliferative response by blood lymphocytes. The airway responses to Ach and serum OA-specific IgE levels in hyposensitized group were not significantly different from those in the sensitized group. These results indicate that amelioration of airway inflammation and hyporesponsiveness of lymphocytes against OA are involved in the attenuated immediate antigen-induced airway response following hyposensitization.
Although several in vivo antigenicity assays using parenteral immunization are operational, no full validated enteral models are available to study food allergy and allergenicity of food proteins. To further validate a developed enteral Brown Norway (BN) rat food allergy model, systemic and local immune-mediated reactions were studied upon oral challenges. The animals were exposed to ovalbumin (OVA) by daily gavage dosing (1 mg OVA/rat/day) for 6 weeks, without the use of an adjuvant, or by intraperitoneal injections with OVA together with AL(OH)3. Subsequently, effects on breathing frequency, blood pressure, and gastrointestinal permeability were investigated upon an oral challenge with 10 to 100 mg OVA in vivo. In both parenterally and orally sensitized rats, an increase in gut permeability (increased passage of beta-lactoglobulin as bystander protein) was determined between 0.5 and 1 h after an oral OVA challenge was given. An oral challenge with OVA did not induce a clear effect on the respiratory system or blood pressure in the majority of the animals. However, some animals demonstrated a temporary decrease in breathing frequency or systolic blood pressure. Upon oral challenge with OVA of orally and parenterally sensitized animals, local effects were observed in all animals whereas systemic effects were observed at a low frequency, which reflects the situation in food allergic patients after an oral challenge. These studies show that the BN rat provides a suitable animal model to study oral sensitization to food proteins as well as immune-mediated effects after oral challenge with food proteins.
BACKGROUND: How the early phase allergic reaction affects the late phase reaction remains unclear. We examined this issue with an experimental model of allergic conjunctivitis that permits the two reactions to be disconnected from each other. METHODS: Experimental immune-mediated blepharoconjunctivitis (EC) was initiated in Brown Norway rats by transferring ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T cells and then challenging with OVA-containing eye drops. To induce early phase reaction, a mast-cell activator, C48/80, was challenged together with or without OVA. Rats were evaluated clinically and eyes were harvested for histologic examination and for evaluation of chemokine expression by reverse-transcriptase PCR. RESULTS: The rats challenged with OVA alone developed the T-cell-mediated late phase reaction histologically, but not clinically, in the absence of early phase reaction. While rats challenged with C48/80 with or without OVA exhibited clinical signs of the early phase reaction, the clinical late phase reaction was observed only in the OVA+C48/80 group. Eosinophilic infiltration into the conjunctiva during the late phase reaction of the OVA+C48/80 group markedly exceeded that of rats challenged with either OVA or C48/80 alone. RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted), an eosinophil attractant, was expressed both in the OVA+C48/80 and OVA groups, while eotaxin was expressed at equivalent levels in all three groups. CONCLUSION: The mast-cell-mediated early phase reaction potentiates the T-cell-mediated late phase reaction, and RANTES is involved in eosinophilic infiltration induced by antigen-specific T cells. Other molecules induced by allergen-specific T cells activated in an as yet unknown manner by the mast cells may be responsible for the infiltration of eosinophils.