The high co-occurrence between borderline personality disorder and affective disorders has led many to believe that borderline personality disorder should be considered as part of an affective spectrum. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the prevalence of affective disorders are higher for patients with borderline personality disorder than for patients with other personality disorders.
In a national cross-sectional study of patients receiving mental health treatment in Norway (N?=?36 773), we determined whether psychiatric outpatients with borderline personality disorder (N?=?1 043) had a higher prevalence of affective disorder in general, and whether they had an increased prevalence of depression, bipolar disorder or dysthymia specifically. They were compared to patients with paranoid, schizoid, dissocial, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, dependent, or unspecified personality disorder, as well as an aggregated group of patients with personality disorders other than the borderline type (N?=?2 636). Odds ratios were computed for the borderline personality disorder group comparing it to the mixed sample of other personality disorders. Diagnostic assessments were conducted in routine clinical practice.
More subjects with borderline personality disorder suffered from unipolar than bipolar disorders. Nevertheless, borderline personality disorder had a lower rate of depression and dysthymia than several other personality disorder groups, whereas the rate of bipolar disorder tended to be higher. Odds ratios showed 34% lower risk for unipolar depression, 70% lower risk for dysthymia and 66% higher risk for bipolar disorder in patients with borderline personality disorder compared to the aggregated group of other personality disorders.
The results suggest that borderline personality disorder has a stronger association with affective disorders in the bipolar spectrum than disorders in the unipolar spectrum. This association may reflect an etiological relationship or diagnostic overlapping criteria.
Cites: Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2000 Summer;8(3):188-9510910415
Cites: Am J Psychiatry. 2012 May;169(5):476-8322737693
Cites: Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001 Jun;58(6):590-611386989
Studies of alcohol habits in general psychiatric populations are scarce. The objective was to investigate alcohol and drug use, smoking, and gambling in a clinical sample of psychiatric outpatients. A further aim was to study age and gender differences in the rates of these habits.
Data were collected among psychiatric outpatients with mainly mood (47%) and anxiety (35%) disorders. A questionnaire package was distributed, including AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test), DUDIT (Drug Use Disorders Identification Test), tobacco items, and gambling items. Two major drinking categories were formed: "Nonhazardous alcohol use" (NH) and "Alcohol use above hazardous levels" (AH).
In total, 2160 patients (65% females) responded to the questionnaire package. The AH rate was high among psychiatric outpatients (28.4%), particularly among young females (46.6%). Young female patients also reported a high prevalence of problematic drug use (13.8%). Problematic drug use, daily smoking, and problematic gambling were frequent. The unhealthy habits were linked to AH.
Alcohol and drug use, smoking, and gambling are all highly prevalent among psychiatric outpatients. Young females are in particular need of attention. Interventions should be tailored for co-occurring psychiatric disorders and applied within routine psychiatric care.
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is a group-based psychosocial intervention designed to enhance self-management of prodromal symptoms associated with depressive relapse.
To compare rates of relapse in depressed patients in remission receiving MBCT against maintenance antidepressant pharmacotherapy, the current standard of care.
Patients who met remission criteria after 8 months of algorithm-informed antidepressant treatment were randomized to receive maintenance antidepressant medication, MBCT, or placebo and were followed up for 18 months.
Outpatient clinics at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and St Joseph's Healthcare, Hamilton, Ontario.
One hundred sixty patients aged 18 to 65 years meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder with a minimum of 2 past episodes. Of these, 84 achieved remission (52.5%) and were assigned to 1 of the 3 study conditions.
Patients in remission discontinued their antidepressants and attended 8 weekly group sessions of MBCT, continued taking their therapeutic dose of antidepressant medication, or discontinued active medication and were switched to placebo.
Relapse was defined as a return, for at least 2 weeks, of symptoms sufficient to meet the criteria for major depression on module A of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV.
Intention-to-treat analyses showed a significant interaction between the quality of acute-phase remission and subsequent prevention of relapse in randomized patients (P = .03). Among unstable remitters (1 or more Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score >7 during remission), patients in both MBCT and maintenance treatment showed a 73% decrease in hazard compared with placebo (P = .03), whereas for stable remitters (all Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression scores =7 during remission) there were no group differences in survival.
For depressed patients achieving stable or unstable clinical remission, MBCT offers protection against relapse/recurrence on a par with that of maintenance antidepressant pharmacotherapy. Our data also highlight the importance of maintaining at least 1 long-term active treatment in unstable remitters.
Cites: Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004 Jan;61(1):34-4114706942
The studies presented compare two methodologies for categorizing suicidal patients based on clinical data. Discussion follows regarding implications for risk assessment and treatment. In these studies, 52 outpatient subjects were placed into different groups based on coding their "suicidal motivation" (Study 1) and their "internal struggle" ratings (Study 2) using data collected at intake. Self-report ratings of 6 Suicide Status Form (SSF) Core Constructs (Psychological Pain, Stress, Agitation, Hopelessness, Self-Hate, and Overall Risk of Suicide) recorded both at intake and at completion of treatment were then compared to determine differences in Core Construct ratings among groups at different time points. In Study 1, overall differences among motivation groups (Life-motivated, Ambivalent, and Death-motivated) were significant for ratings at treatment completion of Overall Risk of Suicide, Self-Hate, and Psychological Pain. In Study 2, overall differences among groups (Wish to live, Ambivalent, and Wish to die) were significant for ratings at intake of Overall Risk of Suicide. At completion of treatment, overall differences among groups were significant for ratings of Overall Risk of Suicide, Hopelessness, and Self-Hate. In addition, significant interactions were found between test time and group for Overall Risk of Suicide and Self-Hate. Results suggest that categorizing suicidal patients by motivation and by the nature of their internal struggle could be beneficial to differential risk assessment with implications for clinical treatment.
Quality of life as an endpoint in a clinical study may be sensitive to the value set used to derive a single score. Focusing on patients' actual valuations in a clinical study, we compare different value sets for the EQ-5D-3L and assess how well they reproduce patients' reported results.
A clinical study comparing inpatient (n = 98) and outpatient (n = 47) rehabilitation of patients after an acute coronary event is re-analyzed. Value sets include: 1. Given health states and time-trade-off valuation (GHS-TTO) rendering economic utilities; 2. Experienced health states and valuation by visual analog scale (EHS-VAS). Valuations are compared with patient-reported VAS rating. Accuracy is assessed by mean absolute error (MAE) and by Pearson's correlation ?. External validity is tested by correlation with established MacNew global scores. Drivers of differences between value sets and VAS are analyzed using repeated measures regression.
EHS-VAS had smaller MAEs and higher ? in all patients and in the inpatient group, and correlated best with MacNew global score. Quality-adjusted survival was more accurately reflected by EHS-VAS. Younger, better educated patients reported lower VAS at admission than the EHS-based value set. EHS-based estimates were mostly able to reproduce patient-reported valuation. Economic utility measurement is conceptually different, produced results less strongly related to patients' reports, and resulted in about 20 % longer quality-adjusted survival.
Decision makers should take into account the impact of choosing value sets on effectiveness results. For transferring the results of heart rehabilitation patients from another country or from another valuation method, the EHS-based value set offers a promising estimation option for those decision makers who prioritize patient-reported valuation. Yet, EHS-based estimates may not fully reflect patient-reported VAS in all situations.
Cites: Qual Life Res. 2015 Feb;24(2):513-2025124253
Cites: Qual Life Res. 2002 Mar;11(2):173-8312018740
To explore the associations between self-rated attachment style, psychological distress and substance use among substance use disorder (SUD) outpatients in psychological treatment.
In this practice-based study, 108 outpatients were asked to fill in the Experiences in Close Relationships - Short form, the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation - Outcome Measure (CORE-OM), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) at treatment start and end. Patients were given psychological treatments with a directive, reflective or supportive orientation.
An insecure attachment style was more common among the SUD outpatients, compared to non-clinical groups. Patients with a fearful attachment style scored higher on psychological distress than patients with a secure attachment style. The associations between the attachment dimensions and psychological distress were stronger than those between attachment and SUD. Significantly more patients had a secure attachment style at treatment end.
This study shows significant relations between patients' attachment style and their initial psychological distress. The causal relationship between attachment style and psychological distress is, however, not clear and can likely go in both directions. The psychological treatment of patients with SUD contributed significantly to changes from insecure to secure attachment style.
We found among patients with SUD a strong relation between patients' attachment style and their psychological distress. Knowledge of the patient's attachment style may help the therapist to tailor the treatment to the patient's needs. A change from insecure to secure attachment style can be an important goal for a SUD treatment, as it may prevent the patient from using defence strategies involving substance use for regulating emotions and interpersonal relationships.
A reduction in the number of inpatient beds as well as shorter admissions have aroused concern that tendencies to deinstitutionalize may increase the suicide rate for psychiatric patients who have been hospitalized. One study indicates that a decreasing inpatient suicide rate may actually reflect a transfer to an increasing postdischarge suicide rate; however, uncertainties exist about this transfer, since it is not well studied. The objectives of this study were to estimate adjusted changes over time in suicide rates among psychiatric inpatients and recently discharged psychiatric patients and to estimate changes in these rates by gender and diagnosis.
Data on all psychiatric patients admitted from 1998 through 2005 in Denmark were extracted from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register and merged with information from the Danish Cause of Death Register. Calendar year was applied as an independent continuous variable in Cox survival analyses modeling the hazard of suicide during inpatient treatment and during the 3-month postdischarge period. Analyses were adjusted for sex, age, educational status, primary diagnosis, and previous suicide attempt.
The overall inpatient suicide rate declined in psychiatric patients admitted from 1998 through 2005 (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.93 [95% CI, 0.88-0.99]), particularly among women (HR = 0.87 [95% CI, 0.79-0.96]). The overall rate of suicide in the 3-month postdischarge period also declined significantly (HR = 0.94 [95% CI, 0.91-0.98]), which was explained mostly by a falling rate among men (HR = 0.94 [95% CI, 0.90-0.98]) as well as among patients who were discharged with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (HR = 0.90 [95% CI, 0.83-0.99]).
Although our results show a decreasing trend in suicide rates, the sizes of the rates emphasize that focus on suicide in mental health care settings must continue and be improved, as the rates are still very high.
Currently, the mental health issues of traumatized refugees are mainly documented in terms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety. Importantly, there are no reports of the level of psychiatric disability in treatment seeking traumatized refugees resettled in the West. Insufficient acknowledgment of the collective load of bio-psycho-social problems in this patient group hinders effective psychiatric and social service utilization outside the specialized clinics for traumatized refugees.
The level of psychiatric disability in traumatized refugees from Danish specialized clinics (N = 448) is documented using routine monitoring data from pre- and post-treatment on the Health of Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS). Furthermore, the HoNOS ratings are compared with routine monitoring data from Danish inpatients with different diagnoses (N = 10.911).
The routinely collected data indicated that despite their outpatient status, traumatized refugees had higher levels of psychiatric disability at pre-treatment compared to most inpatients. Moreover, the traumatized refugees had a HoNOS profile characterized by an overall high problem level in various psychiatric and social domains. The rate of pre- to post-treatment improvement on the HoNOS was smaller for the traumatized refugees than it was for the psychiatric inpatients.
The level, and the versatile profile, of psychiatric disability on the HoNOS point to complex bio-psycho-social problems in resettled treatment seeking traumatized refugees. Thus, a broader assessment of symptoms and better cooperation between psychiatric, health care, and social systems is necessary in order to meet the treatment needs of this group.
Cites: J Nerv Ment Dis. 2000 Sep;188(9):589-9511009332
The aim of the present study was to compare user assessed needs for care for psychiatric patients in inpatient settings with that of residents in supported community residences. The Camberwell Assessment of Need was administered to 75 patients and residents in different housing settings. Residents in supported community settings had more needs for care (8.1), than patients in inpatient settings (5.8), partly because of differences in duration of illness. A greater proportion of those living in supported community residences reported needs in the areas of psychotic symptoms, accommodation, food, daytime activities, sexual expression and looking after the home. There were no differences in numbers of unmet needs. Relatives and friends provided emotional and social support predominantly in the areas of company and psychological distress. In conclusion, living in supported community residences does not imply more unmet needs, or less adequate response to needs from services, despite a greater number of needs being reported. In some areas of need, relatives and friends play an important role in the provision of support.
Health promotion has become a widespread concept, although little empirical research as to its importance and outcome has been performed in the mental health field. The aim of the present study was to investigate the construct validity of a newly developed Health Promotion Intervention Questionnaire, intended to measure patients' subjectively experienced health-promoting interventions within mental health services. A total of 135 participants responded to the questionnaire and to validation measures assessing psychiatric symptoms, empowerment, helping alliance and satisfaction with care. Bivariate correlations showed that overall perceived health-promoting interventions were positively correlated to, helping alliance, client satisfaction with care and empowerment. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that the strongest relationship was found between perceived health promotion intervention and helping alliance. In conclusion, the construct validity of the scale was satisfactory, except for one of its subscales where further investigations are needed.