The aim of the present study was to compare user assessed needs for care for psychiatric patients in inpatient settings with that of residents in supported community residences. The Camberwell Assessment of Need was administered to 75 patients and residents in different housing settings. Residents in supported community settings had more needs for care (8.1), than patients in inpatient settings (5.8), partly because of differences in duration of illness. A greater proportion of those living in supported community residences reported needs in the areas of psychotic symptoms, accommodation, food, daytime activities, sexual expression and looking after the home. There were no differences in numbers of unmet needs. Relatives and friends provided emotional and social support predominantly in the areas of company and psychological distress. In conclusion, living in supported community residences does not imply more unmet needs, or less adequate response to needs from services, despite a greater number of needs being reported. In some areas of need, relatives and friends play an important role in the provision of support.
Health promotion has become a widespread concept, although little empirical research as to its importance and outcome has been performed in the mental health field. The aim of the present study was to investigate the construct validity of a newly developed Health Promotion Intervention Questionnaire, intended to measure patients' subjectively experienced health-promoting interventions within mental health services. A total of 135 participants responded to the questionnaire and to validation measures assessing psychiatric symptoms, empowerment, helping alliance and satisfaction with care. Bivariate correlations showed that overall perceived health-promoting interventions were positively correlated to, helping alliance, client satisfaction with care and empowerment. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that the strongest relationship was found between perceived health promotion intervention and helping alliance. In conclusion, the construct validity of the scale was satisfactory, except for one of its subscales where further investigations are needed.
Evaluating rehabilitation programmes from the patient's perspective is much needed, as the patients are the most important stakeholders in the health care system. A comprehensive rehabilitation programme, COPE-ICD programme, consists of exercise training and nursing consultations during a one year period post ICD implantation. The purpose of this paper is to describe the experience and meaning of participating in a comprehensive ICD-specific rehabilitation programme.
Qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 patients representing the participating population, and later transcribed. The analysis was inspired by Ricoeur's theory of interpretation, which consists of three levels: naive reading, structured analysis and critical interpretation and discussion.
The overall concept was that participating in the COPE-ICD programme meant feeling inspired and secure through individualized care. Four themes emerged: Knowledge: patients gained much needed understanding; Physical attention: patients interpreted body signals and adjusted their exercise behaviour; Trust: patients regained trust, felt secure and dared to live again; Strategies of living: patients' coping was supported through reflection and professional dialogue, and they dealt with the risk of shock or death.
Participating in an ICD-specific rehabilitation programme can make patients feel inspired and secure through individualized care. They discover that they have to rethink some of their strategies of living and they gain support in the reflection and coping needed for that. Patients gain insight and they develop a special physical attention whereby they continue healthy activities through interpreting body signals and adjusting exercise behaviour. They learn to trust their body again.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the level of adherence and motivation in two independent cross-sectional samples of HIV-infected patients conducted in 1998 and 2002, and to investigate the relationship between adherence and motivation. METHOD: Consecutive HIV-infected patients on treatment at a Swedish clinic were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire. In 1998, 60 patients participated and in 2002, 53 participated. In 2002, the 9-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS) was added to the questionnaire set. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Self-reported adherence and motivation. RESULTS: In 1998, 28.1% of the respondents were considered adherent, while the corresponding proportion was 57.4% in 2002 (P = 0.002). The mean summary score for MMAS was 10.7 in 2002 (13 = perfect adherence). The proportion considered motivated were 22.4% in the 1998 survey and 41.3% in 2002 (P = 0.038). Of the respondents considered motivated in the 2002 survey, 46.7% scored the maximum summary score on the MMAS, while 8.7% of the non-motivated respondents did so (P = 0.016). CONCLUSION: The respondents in 2002 were more adherent and motivated than the respondents in 1998 and a relationship between motivation and adherence was found. The difference in adherence and motivation might be due to a new treatment model at the clinic.
BACKGROUND: Fatigue is a common and distressing symptom in chronic heart failure (CHF). Most of the current methods for evaluating patients' symptoms fail to consider the meaning or importance that these symptoms have for the patient. AIM: To illuminate the lived experience of fatigue among elderly women with CHF. METHOD: Narrative interviews were conducted with 10 women with CHF, aged 73-89 years. Interviews were analysed with qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: The findings are presented in two themes and five subthemes. The first theme, 'living with the loss of physical energy', was based on three subthemes describing the experience of fatigue: 'experiencing a substantial presence of feebleness and unfamiliar bodily sensations', 'experiencing unpredictable variations in physical ability', and 'needing help from others in daily life'. The second theme, 'striving for independence while being aware of deteriorating health', describes how the women managed their life situation; it was based on two subthemes: 'acknowledging one's remaining abilities', and 'being forced to adjust and struggle for independence'. CONCLUSIONS: Fatigue was experienced as loss of physical energy, leading to discrepancies between intention and capacity. The will to reduce dependency on others involved a daily struggle against fatigue.
The aim of the study was to describe interactions within the family and between them and professionals on a routine visit at a paediatric oncology outpatient clinic where the visiting child was likely to be fearful. Observations were performed. Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis. The behaviours most frequently observed as expressing fear were being quiet, withdrawn or providing detailed descriptions of experiences. Within the theme ;Recognition of the fear', an attentive attitude to the fear was traced; fear was confirmed and cooperation was seen. Although many efforts were made to meet the fear, this was not always successful. Within the theme ;Lack of attention to the fear', the fear was not in focus due to parental worries and concerns about the child's health, and organizational disturbances. The results can serve as a basis for collegial reflections of how to handle fear in children with cancer.
BACKGROUND: The aim was to examine whether a single question about global perceived health (GPH) is associated with the domains of health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) as assessed by the SF-36, and whether the scores in these domains differ from the different scores of the GPH in relation to left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). METHOD: The study included 412 elderly outpatients with symptoms of heart failure (HF). Echocardiography was used to determine their LVEF, and GPH was assessed by the first question on the SF-36. RESULTS: The correlations between GPH and the different domains in SF-36 ranged from 0.33 to 0.64 in patients with LVEF>or=50% and was between 0.29 and 0.59 in patients with LVEF
An inventory was made among 229 elderly individuals in out- and in-patient care, community care and social welfare. The aim was to investigate the patients' possibilities and interest for intermittent nursing home care in order to avoid or postpone permanent institutional care. The patients were assessed as to physical and mental health and social conditions. Intermittent care was thought to be appropriate for 81 of these patients (35%). After an interview of the patients and cohabiting relatives, 21 patients (9%), mainly out-patients, took a positive interest in this form of care. The in-patients were mostly too ill, and patients in community care found intermittent care interesting but were not prepared for this form of rehabilitation and preferred to wait despite risk of acute deterioration. The most suitable and interested patients and relatives were found among those in day hospital and those on the waiting list for geriatric care.
Taste and smell changes (TSCs) are known side effects of chemotherapy, but smell changes (SCs) in the absence of taste changes are understudied. This study aims to explore SCs occurring without taste changes during chemotherapy, to better understand the characteristics of such changes, and how these experiences affect patients in their daily lives. Data derives from a qualitative interview study and a cross-sectional survey of 518 patients, with all patients receiving out-patient cancer chemotherapy in Sweden. Case studies of three patients with SCs and the 8% of survey participants with SCs only are in focus. All 43 participants with exclusively SCs reported increased sensitivity to one or several odors, with no participants reporting decreased sensitivity. Those reporting SCs significantly more often reported weight gain than those reporting TSCs, with oral problems and appetite loss significantly less common in the SC group. There were no differences in reported nausea between SC and TSC groups, but nausea was more common in the SC group than in those without TSCs. The case study reports were linked to and discussed in relation to possible explanatory models for increased olfactory sensitivity. SCs increase during chemotherapy, were often unpredictable and led to emotional consequences. The participants all reported heightened sensitivity to one or several odors which could not fully be explained by the potential explanatory models of anticipatory nausea and vomiting, pseudohallucinations, or increased chemical sensitivity.
Crohn disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology. The chronic, relapsing nature of Crohn disease produces physical, psychological, and social stress. The disease occurs early in life, and the effects of Crohn disease on daily life are associated with symptom burden; thus, managing their disease and coping with its impact is a lifelong process for sufferers. This study was undertaken to identify and describe the meaning of quality of life in patients with Crohn disease. Using a grounded theory methodology, 11 interviews were performed with 6 men and 5 women, 29-83 years of age, all suffering from Crohn disease. The experience of quality of life was associated with limitations in daily activity, the major theme that emerged from the analysis. Quality of life varied depending on how the patient managed limitations related to the symptoms of the disease. The categories of self-image, confirmatory relations, powerlessness, attitude toward life, and sense of well-being were conceptualized as the dominant themes derived from the data. When caring for these patients, it is important to identify limitations and provide support so that patients are able to maintain a daily life that can be perceived as normal and routine.