Studies of alcohol habits in general psychiatric populations are scarce. The objective was to investigate alcohol and drug use, smoking, and gambling in a clinical sample of psychiatric outpatients. A further aim was to study age and gender differences in the rates of these habits.
Data were collected among psychiatric outpatients with mainly mood (47%) and anxiety (35%) disorders. A questionnaire package was distributed, including AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test), DUDIT (Drug Use Disorders Identification Test), tobacco items, and gambling items. Two major drinking categories were formed: "Nonhazardous alcohol use" (NH) and "Alcohol use above hazardous levels" (AH).
In total, 2160 patients (65% females) responded to the questionnaire package. The AH rate was high among psychiatric outpatients (28.4%), particularly among young females (46.6%). Young female patients also reported a high prevalence of problematic drug use (13.8%). Problematic drug use, daily smoking, and problematic gambling were frequent. The unhealthy habits were linked to AH.
Alcohol and drug use, smoking, and gambling are all highly prevalent among psychiatric outpatients. Young females are in particular need of attention. Interventions should be tailored for co-occurring psychiatric disorders and applied within routine psychiatric care.
Quality of life as an endpoint in a clinical study may be sensitive to the value set used to derive a single score. Focusing on patients' actual valuations in a clinical study, we compare different value sets for the EQ-5D-3L and assess how well they reproduce patients' reported results.
A clinical study comparing inpatient (n = 98) and outpatient (n = 47) rehabilitation of patients after an acute coronary event is re-analyzed. Value sets include: 1. Given health states and time-trade-off valuation (GHS-TTO) rendering economic utilities; 2. Experienced health states and valuation by visual analog scale (EHS-VAS). Valuations are compared with patient-reported VAS rating. Accuracy is assessed by mean absolute error (MAE) and by Pearson's correlation ?. External validity is tested by correlation with established MacNew global scores. Drivers of differences between value sets and VAS are analyzed using repeated measures regression.
EHS-VAS had smaller MAEs and higher ? in all patients and in the inpatient group, and correlated best with MacNew global score. Quality-adjusted survival was more accurately reflected by EHS-VAS. Younger, better educated patients reported lower VAS at admission than the EHS-based value set. EHS-based estimates were mostly able to reproduce patient-reported valuation. Economic utility measurement is conceptually different, produced results less strongly related to patients' reports, and resulted in about 20 % longer quality-adjusted survival.
Decision makers should take into account the impact of choosing value sets on effectiveness results. For transferring the results of heart rehabilitation patients from another country or from another valuation method, the EHS-based value set offers a promising estimation option for those decision makers who prioritize patient-reported valuation. Yet, EHS-based estimates may not fully reflect patient-reported VAS in all situations.
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This study investigated the relationship between patients' self-reported illness, daily afflictions, and the frequency of home nursing care, and whether patients' coping resources influenced the allocation of care. DESIGN, SAMPLE AND MEASUREMENTS: A cross-sectional survey was adopted. Two hundred and forty-two people aged 75 years and above receiving home nursing care participated in the study. Binary logistic regression model was used to test the effects of the independent variables on home nursing care.
Poor capacity to perform activities of daily living and high level of education were directly associated with a high frequency of home nursing care. Lack of perceived social support affected the amount of home nursing care allocated only when feelings of loneliness were connected with poor activities of daily living functioning. Interaction effects revealed that perceived social support influenced the amount of home nursing care in persons with higher education, in persons with low education, no such association were found. No associations were found between coping resources and home nursing care.
Impaired capacity to perform activities of daily living was the main reason for care allocation. Education was associated with more formal care. Patients with low perceived social support combined with a low education level was a particularly vulnerable group.
The aim of the present study was to provide data on the reliability and validity of a Danish translation of the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), a short measure of the impact of dermatological diseases on quality of life. The DLQI was administered to 200 outpatients and 100 hospitalized patients suffering from a range of dermatological diseases and to 100 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Mean scores, internal consistency and test-retest reliability were comparable to the results reported for the original English version. Hospitalized patients reported greater impairment of disease-related quality of life than outpatients, and patients with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis exhibited greater scores than patients suffering from other dermatological diseases. Discriminant, construct and predictive validities of the Danish translation of the DLQI were satisfactory, as indicated by significant associations between DLQI scores and physician-rated disease severity, disease duration and the time patients were willing to spend each day on a hypothetical effective treatment. The results also suggest that the emphasis Danish patients place on various aspects of disability covered by the questionnaire is similar to that of English patients. In conclusion, the Danish translation of the DLQI showed satisfactory reliability and the preliminary results indicate that this version is a valid measure, which can be used in both research and clinical settings.
BACKGROUND: Fatigue is a common and distressing symptom in chronic heart failure (CHF). Most of the current methods for evaluating patients' symptoms fail to consider the meaning or importance that these symptoms have for the patient. AIM: To illuminate the lived experience of fatigue among elderly women with CHF. METHOD: Narrative interviews were conducted with 10 women with CHF, aged 73-89 years. Interviews were analysed with qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: The findings are presented in two themes and five subthemes. The first theme, 'living with the loss of physical energy', was based on three subthemes describing the experience of fatigue: 'experiencing a substantial presence of feebleness and unfamiliar bodily sensations', 'experiencing unpredictable variations in physical ability', and 'needing help from others in daily life'. The second theme, 'striving for independence while being aware of deteriorating health', describes how the women managed their life situation; it was based on two subthemes: 'acknowledging one's remaining abilities', and 'being forced to adjust and struggle for independence'. CONCLUSIONS: Fatigue was experienced as loss of physical energy, leading to discrepancies between intention and capacity. The will to reduce dependency on others involved a daily struggle against fatigue.
BACKGROUND: The aim was to examine whether a single question about global perceived health (GPH) is associated with the domains of health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) as assessed by the SF-36, and whether the scores in these domains differ from the different scores of the GPH in relation to left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). METHOD: The study included 412 elderly outpatients with symptoms of heart failure (HF). Echocardiography was used to determine their LVEF, and GPH was assessed by the first question on the SF-36. RESULTS: The correlations between GPH and the different domains in SF-36 ranged from 0.33 to 0.64 in patients with LVEF>or=50% and was between 0.29 and 0.59 in patients with LVEF
An inventory was made among 229 elderly individuals in out- and in-patient care, community care and social welfare. The aim was to investigate the patients' possibilities and interest for intermittent nursing home care in order to avoid or postpone permanent institutional care. The patients were assessed as to physical and mental health and social conditions. Intermittent care was thought to be appropriate for 81 of these patients (35%). After an interview of the patients and cohabiting relatives, 21 patients (9%), mainly out-patients, took a positive interest in this form of care. The in-patients were mostly too ill, and patients in community care found intermittent care interesting but were not prepared for this form of rehabilitation and preferred to wait despite risk of acute deterioration. The most suitable and interested patients and relatives were found among those in day hospital and those on the waiting list for geriatric care.
Few studies have investigated loneliness in relation to health care consumption among frail older people. The aim of this study was to examine loneliness, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and health complaints in relation to health care consumption of in- and outpatient care among frail older people living at home. The study, with a cross-sectional design, comprised a sample of 153 respondents aged from 65 years (mean age 81.5 years) or older, who lived at home and were frail. Data was collected utilising structured interviews in the respondent's home assessing demographic data, loneliness, HRQoL and health complaints. Patient administrative registers were used to collect data on health care consumption. Loneliness was the dependent variable in the majority of the analyses and dichotomised. For group comparisons Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test and Chi-square test were used. The results showed that 60% of the respondents had experienced loneliness during the previous year, at least occasionally. The study identified that lonely respondents had a lower HRQoL (p = 0.022), with a higher total number of reported health complaints (p = 0.001), and used more outpatient services including more acute visits at the emergency department, compared to not lonely respondents (p = 0.026). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that a depressed mood was independently associated to total use of outpatient care (B = 7.4, p
We aimed to study whether patient-reported outcomes, measured by quality of life (QoL) and functional class, are sensitive to pleural effusion (PLE) in patients with heart failure (HF), and to study changes in QoL and functional class during follow-up of PLE.
A cohort of 62 patients from an outpatient HF clinic was included. The amount of PLE was quantified using a pocket-sized ultrasound imaging device. Self-reports of QoL and functional class were collected using the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) and the New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classification.
At baseline, 26 (42%) patients had PLE of which 19 (31%) patients had moderate to severe amounts of PLE. Patients with no to mild PLE had a lower MLHFQ score (mean 42, SD 21) compared with patients with a moderate to severe amount of PLE (mean 55, SD 24), p=0.03. For 28 patients (45%) with follow-up data, we observed a linear improvement of the MLHFQ-score (3.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 5.1) with each centimetre reduction of PLE. Correspondingly, patient-reported NYHA-class followed the same pattern as the MLHFQ-score.
Our study indicates that patient-reported outcome measures as MLHFQ may be sensitive tools to identify patients with HF at highest risk of symptomatic PLE and that treatment targeting reduction of PLE during follow-up is essential to improvement of QoL and functional capacity of outpatients with HF.
Research on patients' choice of hospital has focused on inpatients' rather than outpatients' choice of provider. We have investigated Danish outpatients' awareness and utilisation of freedom of choice of provider; which factors influence outpatients' choice of hospital, and how socio-demographic variables influence these factors in a single uptake area, where patients were free to choose any public hospital, where care was provided free at the point of delivery, and where distance to the closest hospitals were short by international standards.
Retrospective questionnaire study of 4,232 outpatients referred to examination, treatment, or follow-up at one of nine somatic outpatient clinics in Roskilde County in two months of 2002, who had not been hospitalised within the latest 12 months. The patients were asked, whether they were aware of and utilised freedom of choice of hospital.
Fifty-four percent (2,272 patients) filled in and returned the questionnaire. Forty-one percent of respondents were aware of their right to choose, and 53% of those patients utilised their right to choose. Awareness of freedom of choice of provider was reported to be especially high in female outpatients, patients with longer education, salaried employees in the public sector, and in patients referred to surgical specialties. Female outpatients and students were especially likely to report that they utilised their right to choose the provider. Short distance was the most important reason for outpatients' choice, followed by the GP's recommendations, short waiting time, and the patient's previous experience with the hospital.
Outpatients' awareness and utilisation of free choice of health care provider was low. Awareness of freedom of choice of provider differed significantly by specialty and patient's gender, education and employment. Female patients and students were especially likely to choose the clinic by themselves. Most outpatients chose the clinic closest to their home, the GP's recommendation and short waiting time being the second and third most important factors behind choice.
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