To explore the associations between self-rated attachment style, psychological distress and substance use among substance use disorder (SUD) outpatients in psychological treatment.
In this practice-based study, 108 outpatients were asked to fill in the Experiences in Close Relationships - Short form, the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation - Outcome Measure (CORE-OM), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) at treatment start and end. Patients were given psychological treatments with a directive, reflective or supportive orientation.
An insecure attachment style was more common among the SUD outpatients, compared to non-clinical groups. Patients with a fearful attachment style scored higher on psychological distress than patients with a secure attachment style. The associations between the attachment dimensions and psychological distress were stronger than those between attachment and SUD. Significantly more patients had a secure attachment style at treatment end.
This study shows significant relations between patients' attachment style and their initial psychological distress. The causal relationship between attachment style and psychological distress is, however, not clear and can likely go in both directions. The psychological treatment of patients with SUD contributed significantly to changes from insecure to secure attachment style.
We found among patients with SUD a strong relation between patients' attachment style and their psychological distress. Knowledge of the patient's attachment style may help the therapist to tailor the treatment to the patient's needs. A change from insecure to secure attachment style can be an important goal for a SUD treatment, as it may prevent the patient from using defence strategies involving substance use for regulating emotions and interpersonal relationships.
In the past two decades, population-based health surveys have begun including measures of sexual orientation, permitting estimates of sexual orientation disparities in psychiatric morbidity and differences in treatment utilization. The present study takes advantage of the high-quality, comprehensive nationwide health registry data available in Sweden to examine whether psychiatric outpatient treatment for various diagnoses and antidepressant medication usage are greater in sexual minority individuals compared to their siblings. A longitudinal cohort study design was used with a representative random population-based sample in Stockholm, Sweden. Registry-based health record data on all specialized outpatient health care visits and prescription drug use was linked to a sample of 1154 sexual minority individuals from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort and their siblings. The main outcomes were treatment due to psychiatric diagnoses retrieved from nationwide registry-based health records. In analyses accounting for dependency between siblings, gay men/lesbians had a greater likelihood of being treated for mood disorder [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.77; 99% confidence intervals (CI) 1.00, 3.16] and being prescribed antidepressants (AOR 1.51; 99% CI 1.10, 2.07) compared to their siblings. Further, bisexual individuals had a greater likelihood of any outpatient psychiatric treatment (AOR 1.69; 99% CI 1.17, 2.45) and being prescribed antidepressants (AOR 1.48; 99% CI 1.07, 2.05) as well as a greater likelihood of being treated for a mood disorder (AOR 1.98; 99% CI 1.33, 2.95) compared to their siblings. No difference in anxiety or substance use disorder treatment was found between any sexual minority subgroup and their siblings. The potential role of familial confounding in psychiatric disorder treatment was not supported for more than half of the outcomes that were examined. Results suggest that sexual minority individuals are significantly more likely to be treated for certain psychiatric disorders compared to their siblings. Future research is needed to understand mechanisms other than familial factors that might cause the substantial treatment differences based on sexual orientation reported here.
Family plays an essential role in supporting the patient with cancer, however, relatively little attention has been given to understanding the strengths and resources of the family unit across different settings and countries. This study aims to investigate the strengths and resources of patients and family members in Australia and Denmark.
Using a descriptive, cross-sectional design, 232 patient and family participants from inpatient and outpatient oncology services in Australia and Denmark completed paper based surveys that included the Family Hardiness Index (FHI) and Family Crisis Orientated Personal Evaluation Scales (F-COPES), together with demographic and health information.
The family's appraisal of the cancer and ways the family worked together predicted the level of external resources used to manage their circumstances.
After a cancer diagnosis patients and family respond in different ways related to their family functioning. There is a need for nurses to work closely with the family to understand their strengths and resources, and tailor support and information for family to promote optimal patient outcomes.
The aim of the study was to explore the psychometric properties of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-64) and to compare levels of interpersonal distress in Swedish female outpatients with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa with age- and gender-matched controls.
Totally, 401 participants were included; anorexia nervosa (n?=?74), bulimia nervosa (n?=?85) and controls (n?=?242). All participants completed the IIP-64. The eating disorder (ED) patients also filled out the Eating Disorder Inventory-2/3 (EDI).
Internal consistency of IIP-64 was acceptable to high. Principal component analyses with varimax rotation of the IIP-64 subscales confirmed the circumplex structure with two underlying orthogonal dimensions; affiliation and dominance. Significant correlations between EDI-3 composite scales ineffectiveness and interpersonal problems and IIP-64 were found. ED patients reported higher levels of interpersonal distress than controls on all but one subscale (intrusive/needy).
IIP-64 can be considered to have acceptable to good reliability and validity in a Swedish ED sample. IIP-64 can be a useful complement in assessment of interpersonal problems in ED.