Suicidal adolescent out-patients were compared with non-suicidal subjects with respect to background factors, psychopathology and treatment received. Data for suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, psychiatric diagnoses (DSM-III-R) and other patient-related factors were collected prospectively during treatment of 122 male and 138 female out-patients aged 12-22 years. In total, 42% of subjects displayed suicidal tendencies, and 18% had attempted suicide. According to polychotomous regression, mood disorder, previous psychiatric treatment and low level of psychosocial functioning at treatment entry were associated with suicide attempts and with suicidal ideation for both sexes. Suicidal patients were more often receiving psychotropic medication and had more total appointments (mean number 15 vs. 9) than non-suicidal patients. Suicidal and non-suicidal patients kept their scheduled appointments to the same extent (66% vs. 65%). Treatments which meet the needs of disordered suicidal adolescents need to be developed.
To investigate attitudes to clinical research amongst potential research participants.
Two medical out-patient clinics and the background population.
A total of 508 randomly selected citizens in Copenhagen County (64% responded) and 200 consecutive patients attending the out-patient clinics (64% responded).
Attitudes toward different aspects of clinical research.
Positive attitudes toward medical research were disclosed. The majority found scientific testing necessary, although only a minority considered participation a moral obligation. Both personal benefits and altruistic motives for participation were highly rated, whereas former positive experiences from trial participation had only minor impact on decisions. Several respondents stated former trial participation had changed their attitudes negatively. Lack of feedback of results was of major importance for this change. Attitudes are significantly influenced by the presence of independent research ethics committees, whereas trial technicalities such as drawing lots and blinding was found problematic by only a few respondents. Altruistic motives of physicians to conduct trials were highly rated by a majority of respondents, but the motive of promoting doctors' careers was also judged important. Respondents rated nondiscomforting procedures as acceptable or having only a small impact or strain on their lives.
Attitudes toward medical research are positive amongst out-patients and the general public. Altruistic and nonaltruistic motives both concerning trial participation and concerning the motives of physicians to conduct medical research were rated highly. Lack of feedback concerning results of trials to participants was important for a negative change in attitude toward participation.
The factor structure of the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS; Beck & Steer, 1988) was examined among 411 outpatients (male = 132, female = 272, unknown = 7). Varimax-rotated principal-components analysis extracted three factors greater than unity that accounted for 40.4%, 6.9%, and 5.6% of the variance. Because the structure was invariant across factor rotations and levels of hopelessness severity, it is concluded that the BHS consists of three factors (Expectations of Success, Expectations of Failure, and Future Uncertainty).
OBJECTIVES. To compare personality characteristics in duodenal ulcer patients and patients with ulcer-like dyspepsia from the primary health sector with duodenal ulcer patients from a hospital and to evaluate the relationship of the personality characteristics to the course of the diseases. DESIGN. A prospective study using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) with retesting of a subgroup of patients after a median observation period of 14 months. SETTING. Departments of Medical and Surgical Gastroenterology, Hvidovre University Hospital, and the primary health sector in Roskilde County, Denmark. SUBJECTS. Sixty hospital patients with duodenal ulceration and 17 patients with duodenal ulceration plus 25 patients with ulcer-like dyspepsia from the primary health sector. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. MMPI scores. RESULTS. The hospital patients differed from the two other groups of patients by having higher scores of depression and anxiety (P
Physical, cognitive, and social factors play a central role in the lithium compliance of people with bipolar disorder. However, studies provide only a partial understanding of this phenomenon and there is currently no nursing model that takes into consideration a combination of factors. This study, based on Pender's preventive health beliefs model, was intended to identify the psychosocial determinants of lithium compliance. A random sample (n = 149) of outpatients at a large Montreal psychiatric hospital was used to measure lithium compliance on the basis of 5 criteria: compliance according to the nurse and according to the patient, appointment compliance, and compliance according to two criteria related to hyperuricemia. Polytomous logistic regression analyses were computed by regressing a composite of these criteria on sociodemographic variables and on the variables of the Pender model: susceptibility, seriousness, control over health, motivation to be healthy, perceived benefits and obstacles, and triggering factors. It appears that being female, being elderly, living with a partner, and perceived treatment benefits and obstacles are determining factors in lithium compliance. These results are all the more important in light of Quebec's newly implemented drug insurance plan, which could increase the obstacles to medication. Nurses will have to be increasingly vigilant with respect to these new obstacles and will have to adjust their interventions accordingly.
During the period 23.11.1987-22.11.1989, a total of 7,906 patients attended the psychiatric outpatient department and observation section on 12,469 occasions. Sixty patients (0.8%) behaved violently on 85 occasions. None of these episodes of violence resulted in injuries to persons requiring medical attention. 90% of the violent patients were men and 70% were in the age group 20-39 years. Approximately 1/5 were psychotic and, of these, approximately half suffered from schizophrenia. Comparison with the non-violent patient revealed that the probability of violence was greater if the patient was a man under the influence of alcohol and who had the diagnoses of narcomania, drug abuse or personality disorders. Significantly fewer violent patients were admitted than non-violent patients. Over 80% of the violent patients had previously been admitted to psychiatric departments. Approximately 60% had behaved violently on previous consultations with the psychiatric outpatient department.