The role of a lethal issues analysis in improving the level of public health is discussed. The significance of autopsy results and their analysis, with the development of medical science, not only did not decrease but, on the contrary, considerably increased. Real possibility of computer analysis of the lethal issues appeared with the introduction of International classification of diseases. The requirements to the unified reports of the departments of pathology are considered, the latter being the most important information about the activity of the pathology service and the quality of the therapeutical and diagnostic process at its different levels.
As minimally invasive surgery progresses, there have been attempts to modify the technique to minimize both the number and visibility of incisions. These newer techniques are known by multiple acronyms, including single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS). The SILS technique has gained popularity in the United States, particularly owing to its perceived improved cosmesis. The SILS technique has been primarily used in adults, and the number of pediatric publications on the topic is underwhelming. We have begun to evaluate SILS at our centre to determine its applicability in both a Canadian and pediatric practice, and this commentary discusses our initial application of the procedure.
The core of evidence-based practice (EBP) as advocated for within the practice arms of the health and social sciences is to promote the routine incorporation of the best available research evidence into practice efforts. This requires discipline-specific education that is not only grounded in professional practice but also prepares would-be scientists in the application of the sophisticated techniques that characterize today's high research standards. Doctoral-level education is an important primer for future scientific endeavors across disciplines. This study examined 2334 theses published across Sweden in public health, criminology, nursing, psychiatry, psychology, social work, and sociology during the period 1997-2012. Of the theses reviewed, 13% aimed to investigate the effects of interventions. The highest percentage of effectiveness studies was found in nursing, public health, and psychology. The percentage of outcome research increased during the period. Controlled studies (with comparison group and pre- and post-test) occurred primarily within public health, nursing, psychiatry, and psychology. Of the 296 theses that included an intervention effectiveness study, 131 (44%), or 5.6% of all theses reviewed, met all four assessment criteria for quality. PhD education across seven disciplines in Sweden may be producing a professional core of scientists that is ill prepared to produce the type of research that is necessary to inform practice of the effects of its interventions as exposure to the rigors of quality effectiveness research is all but non-existent. This has implications for the advancement of an evidence-based practice and intervention science more broadly.
The article covers results of implementing the program "Improved quality of medical care and prevention of eye injuries in Udmurt Republic" at various stages of medical care (pre-admission, hospital). Findings are lower occurrence of eye injuries (outpatient and inpatient), lower disability for eye injury consquences, decreased terms of transitory disablement.
Norway has not had any strategy exclusively for the implementation of routine outcome measurement in the mental health services, but some efforts have been made as part of strategies for a national patient register and quality indicators. Fifteen years after the decision to make the rating of the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF) mandatory at admission and discharge of each treatment episode in adult mental health services, this is still not fully implemented. An unknown and probably very low proportion of mental health services use GAF as a routine outcome measure in everyday clinical practice. Well-established electronic patient records in the mental health services and established procedures for reporting routine data to the National Patient Register should make it possible to collect and use routine outcome data. Implementation of routine outcome measurement in mental health services must be done with due emphasis on the critical steps in the various phases of the implementation process. The regional health authorities have a key role in establishing electronic systems that make relevant outcome measurements available in a seamless way for clinicians as well as for patients, and by contributing to a culture where quality and outcome are valued and given priority.