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40 records – page 2 of 4.

Cryptosporidium and Giardia in marine-foraging river otters (Lontra canadensis) from the Puget Sound Georgia Basin ecosystem.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature164131
Source
J Parasitol. 2007 Feb;93(1):198-202
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2007
Author
J K Gaydos
W A Miller
K V K Gilardi
A. Melli
H. Schwantje
C. Engelstoft
H. Fritz
P A Conrad
Author Affiliation
Orcas Island Office, University of California-Davis Wildlife Health Center, 1016 Deer Harbor Road, Eastsound, Washington 98245, USA. jkgaydos@ucdavis.edu
Source
J Parasitol. 2007 Feb;93(1):198-202
Date
Feb-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
British Columbia - epidemiology
Cryptosporidiosis - epidemiology - transmission - veterinary
Cryptosporidium - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Ecosystem
Feces - parasitology
Genotype
Giardia - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Giardiasis - epidemiology - transmission - veterinary
Humans
Otters - parasitology
Risk factors
Washington - epidemiology
Zoonoses
Abstract
Species of Cryptosporidium and Giardia can infect humans and wildlife and have the potential to be transmitted between these 2 groups; yet, very little is known about these protozoans in marine wildlife. Feces of river otters (Lontra canadensis), a common marine wildlife species in the Puget Sound Georgia Basin, were examined for species of Cryptosporidium and Giardia to determine their role in the epidemiology of these pathogens. Using ZnSO4 flotation and immunomagnetic separation, followed by direct immunofluorescent antibody detection (IMS/DFA), we identified Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts in 9 fecal samples from 6 locations and Giardia sp. cysts in 11 fecal samples from 7 locations. The putative risk factors of proximate human population and degree of anthropogenic shoreline modification were not associated with the detection of Cryptosporidium or Giardia spp. in river otter feces. Amplification of DNA from the IMS/DFA slide scrapings was successful for 1 sample containing > 500 Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts. Sequences from the Cryptosporidium 18S rRNA and the COWP loci were most similar to the ferret Cryptosporidium sp. genotype. River otters could serve as reservoirs for Cryptosporidium and Giardia species in marine ecosystems. More work is needed to better understand the zoonotic potential of the genotypes they carry as well as their implications for river otter health.
PubMed ID
17436965 View in PubMed
Less detail

Does human proximity affect antibody prevalence in marine-foraging river otters (Lontra canadensis)?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature78527
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2007 Jan;43(1):116-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2007
Author
Gaydos Joseph K
Conrad Patricia A
Gilardi Kirsten V K
Blundell Gail M
Ben-David Merav
Author Affiliation
University of California, Davis, Wildlife Health Center, Orcas Island Office, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, 1016 Deer Harbor Road, Eastsound, Washington 98245, USA. jkgaydos@ucdavis.edu
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2007 Jan;43(1):116-23
Date
Jan-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Animals, Wild
Antibodies, Bacterial - blood
Antibodies, Protozoan - blood
Antibodies, Viral - blood
Conservation of Natural Resources
Environment
Female
Humans
Leptospira interrogans - immunology
Leptospirosis - epidemiology - veterinary
Male
Otters - microbiology - parasitology - virology
Population Density
Sentinel Surveillance - veterinary
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Toxoplasma - immunology
Toxoplasmosis, Animal - epidemiology
Abstract
The investigation of diseases of free-ranging river otters (Lontra canadensis) is a primary conservation priority for this species; however, very little is known about diseases of river otters that forage in marine environments. To identify and better understand pathogens that could be important to marine-foraging river otters, other wildlife species, domestic animals, and humans and to determine if proximity to human population could be a factor in disease exposure, serum samples from 55 free-ranging marine-foraging river otters were tested for antibodies to selected pathogens. Thirty-five animals were captured in Prince William Sound, Alaska (USA), an area of low human density, and 20 were captured in the San Juan Islands, Washington State (USA), an area characterized by higher human density. Of 40 river otters tested by indirect immunofluorescent antibody test, 17.5% were seropositive (titer > or =320) for Toxoplasma gondii. All positive animals came from Washington. Of 35 river otters tested for antibodies to Leptospira interrogans using the microscopic agglutination test, 10 of 20 (50%) from Washington were seropositive (titer > or =200). None of the 15 tested animals from Alaska were positive. Antibodies to Neospora caninum (n=40), Sarcocystis neurona (n=40), Brucella abortus (n=55), avian influenza (n=40), canine distemper virus (n=55), phocine distemper virus (n=55), dolphin morbillivirus (n=55), porpoise morbillivirus (n=55), and Aleutian disease parvovirus (n=46) were not detected. Identifying exposure to T. gondii and L. interrogans in otters from Washington State but not in otters from Alaska suggests that living proximal to higher human density and its associated agricultural activities, domestic animals, and rodent populations could enhance river otter exposure to these pathogens.
PubMed ID
17347401 View in PubMed
Less detail

Effects of petroleum on mink applied as a model for reproductive success in sea otters.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4507
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2001 Oct;37(4):686-92
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2001
Author
J A Mazet
I A Gardner
D A Jessup
L J Lowenstine
Author Affiliation
Wildlife Health Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA. wildlifehealth@ucdavis.edu
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2001 Oct;37(4):686-92
Date
Oct-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Breeding
Female
Food Contamination
Maternal Exposure
Mink
Models, Animal
Otters - physiology
Petroleum - adverse effects
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Outcome - veterinary
Pregnancy, Animal - drug effects - physiology
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Reproduction - drug effects
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Water Pollutants, Chemical - adverse effects
Abstract
Ranch-reared mink (Mustela vison) were used as a model in an experimental trial to investigate the potential effects of exposure to two petroleum products on sea otters (Enhydra lutris). Mink were exposed either dermally on one occasion 60 days prior to breeding or via low level contamination of their diets daily from 60 days prior to breeding (January 1994) until weaning of kits (June 1994). For dermal exposure, we placed mink in either a slick of Alaskan North Slope crude oil (n = 24) or bunker C fuel oil (n = 24) on sea water or sea water alone (n = 10) for 1 min. For dietary exposure, we fed mink rations containing 500 ppm of either Alaskan North Slope crude oil (n = 24) or bunker C fuel oil (n = 24; control, n = 15). The number of liveborn kits did not differ significantly among mink exposed dermally (5.0 kits/female for crude oil and 6.5 kits/female for bunker C fuel oil) and unexposed controls (5.3 kits/female). However, only 2.3 and 0.7 kits were produced per female for those exposed through the diet to crude oil and bunker C fuel oil, respectively. Females with reduced reproductive success had no clinical signs of toxicosis or behavioral abnormalities. In addition, kits of females exposed through the diet had poor survival to weaning. Once mature, kits born to females exposed to bunker C fuel oil in the diet had significantly reduced reproductive success (3.4 kits/female) although their only exposure to the petroleum products was in utero or during nursing. Therefore, it is possible that sea otter populations consuming contaminated food sources or colonizing previously oiled habitats will have reduced reproductive success.
PubMed ID
11763732 View in PubMed
Less detail

Evidence for recovery of body mass and haptoglobin values of river otters following the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6871
Source
J Wildl Dis. 1994 Jul;30(3):421-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1994
Author
L K Duffy
R T Bowyer
J W Testa
J B Faro
Author Affiliation
Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks 99775.
Source
J Wildl Dis. 1994 Jul;30(3):421-5
Date
Jul-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents
Alaska
Analysis of Variance
Animals
Animals, Wild
Body constitution
Female
Fresh Water
Haptoglobins - analysis - drug effects
Male
Otters - anatomy & histology - blood
Petroleum - adverse effects
Ships
Water Pollution, Chemical - adverse effects
Abstract
Levels of blood haptoglobin (Hp) and interleukin-6 immunoreactive protein (IL-6 ir) were significantly elevated in river otters (Lutra canadensis) inhabiting oiled areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska (USA) following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. By May and June 1992, however, such differences were not apparent. Mean body mass of otters, adjusted for sex, age-class, and total length with analysis of covariance, differed between oiled and non-oiled areas from 1990 to 1992, but were nearly identical by May and June 1992. We propose that river otters may be recovering from chronic effects that we observed in 1990 and 1991 following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, but further research is necessary to test this hypothesis.
PubMed ID
7933287 View in PubMed
Less detail

High prevalence of proposed Müllerian duct remnant cysts on the spermatic duct in wild Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) from Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257410
Source
PLoS One. 2013;8(12):e84660
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Anna M Roos
Erik O Ågren
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Research, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden ; Department of environmental toxicology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
Source
PLoS One. 2013;8(12):e84660
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Animals
Cysts - epidemiology - pathology - veterinary
Linear Models
Male
Mullerian Ducts - abnormalities - pathology
Otters
Prevalence
Sweden - epidemiology
Vas Deferens - pathology
Abstract
The spermatic ducts (vasa deferentia) of 235 otters (Lutra lutra) found dead between 1999 and 2012 in Sweden were examined for presence of paraductular cysts. Single or multiple elongated uni- or bilateral cysts parallel to the spermatic duct were noted in 72% of the examined males. The cysts were adjacent to, but did not communicate with the lumen of the spermatic duct, and were usually located within a few centimeters of the testis and epididymis. The cysts are proposed to be congenital Müllerian duct remnants. Other morphologic abnormalities in the reproductive organs were not noted within this study. Possible causes of the incomplete regression of the embryonic female gonadal duct are exposure to environmental contaminants such as elevated concentrations of estrogen-like compounds (endocrine disrupting chemicals), inbreeding, or a naturally occurring anatomic defect. No obvious geographical pattern was observed for otters with or without cysts. This is the first study and description of cysts on the spermatic duct in otters.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24376831 View in PubMed
Less detail

Ingestion of crude oil: effects on digesta retention times and nutrient uptake in captive river otters.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4831
Source
J Comp Physiol [B]. 2000 Sep;170(5-6):419-28
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2000
Author
O A Ormseth
M. Ben-David
Author Affiliation
Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 99775, USA.
Source
J Comp Physiol [B]. 2000 Sep;170(5-6):419-28
Date
Sep-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Animal Nutrition
Animals
Carbon Isotopes
Digestion - drug effects
Environmental pollution
Feces - chemistry
Gastrointestinal Motility - drug effects - physiology
Hydrocarbons - pharmacokinetics
Intestinal Absorption - drug effects - physiology
Malabsorption Syndromes - chemically induced
Male
Otters - physiology
Petroleum - toxicity
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
Studies following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska indicated that river otters (Lontra canadensis) from oiled regions displayed symptoms of degraded health, including reduced body weight. We examined the fate of ingested oil in the digestive tract and its effects on gut function in captive river otters. Fifteen wild-caught males were assigned to three groups, two of which were given weathered crude oil in food (i.e., control, 5 ppm day(-1), and 50 ppm day(-1)) under controlled conditions at the Alaska Sealife Center. Using glass beads as non-specific digesta markers and stable isotope analysis, we determined the effects of ingested oil on retention time and nutrient uptake. Our data indicated that oil ingestion reduced marker retention time when we controlled for activity and meal size. Fecal isotope ratios suggested that absorption of lipids in the oiled otters might have been affected by reduced retention time of food. In addition, a dilution model indicated that as much as 80% of ingested oil was not absorbed in high-dose animals. Thus, while the ingestion of large quantities of weathered crude oil appears to reduce absorption of oil hydrocarbons and may alleviate systemic effects, it may concurrently affect body condition by impacting digestive function.
PubMed ID
11083525 View in PubMed
Less detail

Locally acquired disseminated histoplasmosis in a northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) in Alaska, USA.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259021
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2014 Apr;50(2):389-92
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2014
Author
Kathy A Burek-Huntington
Verena Gill
Daniel S Bradway
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2014 Apr;50(2):389-92
Date
Apr-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska - epidemiology
Animals
Female
Histoplasmosis - microbiology - veterinary
Otters
Abstract
Histoplasmosis of local origin has not been reported in humans or wildlife in Alaska, and the disease has never been reported in a free-ranging marine mammal. In 2005 a northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) was found on Kodiak Island, Alaska, at 57° latitude north, far outside the known distribution of Histoplasma capsulatum. The animal died of disseminated histoplasmosis. Microorganisms consistent with Histoplasma sp. were observed on histopathology, and H. capsulatum was identified by PCR and sequencing. We suggest migratory seabirds or aerosol transmission through prevailing winds may have resulted in transmission to the sea otter.
PubMed ID
24484503 View in PubMed
Less detail

Long-term impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on sea otters, assessed through age-dependent mortality patterns.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6763
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Jun 6;97(12):6562-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-6-2000
Author
D H Monson
D F Doak
B E Ballachey
A. Johnson
J L Bodkin
Author Affiliation
United States Geological Survey, Alaska Biological Science Center, 1011 East Tudor Road, Anchorage, AK 99503, USA. daniel_monson@usgs.gov
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Jun 6;97(12):6562-7
Date
Jun-6-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents
Age Factors
Alaska
Animals
Environmental pollution
Mortality
Otters - physiology
Petroleum
Population Surveillance
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Time Factors
Abstract
We use age distributions of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) found dead on beaches of western Prince William Sound, Alaska, between 1976 and 1998 in conjunction with time-varying demographic models to test for lingering effects from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Our results show that sea otters in this area had decreased survival rates in the years following the spill and that the effects of the spill on annual survival increased rather than dissipated for older animals. Otters born after the 1989 spill were affected less than those alive in March 1989, but do show continuing negative effects through 1998. Population-wide effects of the spill appear to have slowly dissipated through time, due largely to the loss of cohorts alive during the spill. Our results demonstrate that the difficult-to-detect long-term impacts of environmental disasters may still be highly significant and can be rigorously analyzed by using a combination of population data, modeling techniques, and statistical analyses.
PubMed ID
10823920 View in PubMed
Less detail

Loss of genetic diversity in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) associated with the fur trade of the 18th and 19th centuries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature3308
Source
Mol Ecol. 2002 Oct;11(10):1899-903
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2002
Author
Shawn Larson
Ronald Jameson
Michael Etnier
Melissa Fleming
Paul Bentzen
Author Affiliation
The Seattle Aquarium, 1483 Alaskan Way, Pier 59, Seattle, WA 98101, USA. shawn.larson@ci.seattle.wa.us
Source
Mol Ecol. 2002 Oct;11(10):1899-903
Date
Oct-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Animals, Wild
Bone and Bones
Commerce - history
DNA, Mitochondrial - genetics
Genetics, Population
Hair
History, 18th Century
History, 19th Century
Microsatellite Repeats - genetics
Otters - genetics
Paleontology
Population Dynamics
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Variation (Genetics) - genetics
Abstract
Sea otter (Enhydra lutris) populations experienced widespread reduction and extirpation due to the fur trade of the 18th and 19th centuries. We examined genetic variation within four microsatellite markers and the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) d-loop in one prefur trade population and compared it to five modern populations to determine potential losses in genetic variation. While mtDNA sequence variability was low within both modern and extinct populations, analysis of microsatellite allelic data revealed that the prefur trade population had significantly more variation than all the extant sea otter populations. Reduced genetic variation may lead to inbreeding depression and we believe sea otter populations should be closely monitored for potential associated negative effects.
PubMed ID
12296934 View in PubMed
Less detail

Malignant seminoma with metastasis and herpesvirus infection in a free-living sea otter (Enhydra lutris).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4011
Source
J Zoo Wildl Med. 1998 Mar;29(1):35-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1998
Author
D C Reimer
T P Lipscomb
Author Affiliation
Registry of Comparative Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, D.C. 20306-6001, USA.
Source
J Zoo Wildl Med. 1998 Mar;29(1):35-9
Date
Mar-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Cornea - ultrastructure - virology
Cryptorchidism - complications - veterinary
Epithelium - pathology - ultrastructure - virology
Esophagus - pathology - ultrastructure - virology
Herpesviridae - isolation & purification - ultrastructure
Herpesviridae Infections - complications - pathology - veterinary
Inclusion Bodies, Viral - ultrastructure - virology
Lymph Nodes - pathology
Lymphatic Metastasis
Male
Microscopy, Electron
Mouth Mucosa - pathology - ultrastructure - virology
Otters
Seminoma - complications - pathology - veterinary
Testicular Neoplasms - complications - pathology - veterinary
Testis - pathology
Virion - isolation & purification - ultrastructure
Abstract
In winter 1990, an adult male sea otter (Enhydra lutris) was found dead along the eastern shore of Prince William Sound, Alaska. Necropsy findings included an enlarged retained left testicle with a twisted spermatic cord, enlarged left sublumbar lymph node, emaciation, dental attrition, oral papules and ulcers, and luminal intestinal hemorrhage associated with numerous acanthocephalids. A malignant seminoma was present in the left testicle and left sublumbar lymph node. Additionally, herpesvirus like intranuclear inclusion bodies were found in oral, esophageal, and corneal epithelial cells. Virions consistent with a herpesvirus were found in esophageal epithelium. Dental attrition, severe intestinal acanthocephaliasis, the malignant seminoma, and emaciation were considered contributing factors in causing death. The herpesviral disease was probably secondary to the debilitation and stress. This is the first report of malignant seminoma with metastasis in a sea otter.
PubMed ID
9638623 View in PubMed
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40 records – page 2 of 4.