Skip header and navigation

Refine By

5 records – page 1 of 1.

Bartonella spp. exposure in northern and southern sea otters in Alaska and California.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265772
Source
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2014 Dec;14(12):831-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2014
Author
Sebastian E Carrasco
Bruno B Chomel
Verena A Gill
Angela M Doroff
Melissa A Miller
Kathleen A Burek-Huntington
Rickie W Kasten
Barbara A Byrne
Tracey Goldstein
Jonna A K Mazet
Source
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2014 Dec;14(12):831-7
Date
Dec-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska - epidemiology
Animals
Antibodies, Bacterial - blood
Bartonella - immunology
Bartonella Infections - blood - epidemiology - veterinary
California - epidemiology
Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect - veterinary
Otters - blood - microbiology
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Abstract
Since 2002, an increased number of northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) from southcentral Alaska have been reported to be dying due to endocarditis and/or septicemia with infection by Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli. Bartonella spp. DNA was also detected in northern sea otters as part of mortality investigations during this unusual mortality event (UME) in Kachemak Bay, Alaska. To evaluate the extent of exposure to Bartonella spp. in sea otters, sera collected from necropsied and live-captured northern sea otters, as well as necropsied southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) unaffected by the UME, were analyzed using an immunofluorescent antibody assay. Antibodies against Bartonella spp. were detected in sera from 50% of necropsied and 34% of presumed healthy, live-captured northern sea otters and in 16% of necropsied southern sea otters. The majority of sea otters with reactive sera were seropositive for B. washoensis, with antibody titers ranging from 1:64 to 1:256. Bartonella spp. antibodies were especially common in adult northern sea otters, both free-living (49%) and necropsied (62%). Adult stranded northern sea otters that died from infectious causes, such as opportunistic bacterial infections, were 27 times more likely to be Bartonella seropositive than adult stranded northern sea otters that died from noninfectious causes (p
Notes
Cites: J Clin Microbiol. 2004 Jul;42(7):3346-915243113
Cites: J Wildl Dis. 2011 Apr;47(2):278-9221441180
Cites: J Wildl Dis. 2011 Jul;47(3):579-9221719822
Cites: J Clin Microbiol. 2012 Dec;50(12):4131-323052307
Cites: Vet Microbiol. 2014 Jun 4;170(3-4):325-3424629902
Cites: Clin Microbiol Rev. 2000 Jul;13(3):428-3810885985
Cites: J Clin Microbiol. 2000 Nov;38(11):4193-20011060089
Cites: Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2002 Sep;9(5):1004-912204950
Cites: J Wildl Dis. 2003 Jul;39(3):495-50914567210
Cites: J Clin Microbiol. 2003 Nov;41(11):5327-3214605197
Cites: J Vet Intern Med. 2004 Jan-Feb;18(1):56-6414765733
Cites: J Clin Microbiol. 2004 Feb;42(2):652-914766832
Cites: J Clin Microbiol. 1995 Sep;33(9):2445-507494043
Cites: J Clin Microbiol. 1996 Sep;34(9):2270-48862597
Cites: Am J Vet Res. 1997 May;58(5):467-719140552
Cites: Parasitology. 1998 Oct;117 ( Pt 4):393-4039820861
Cites: Emerg Infect Dis. 1999 Sep-Oct;5(5):711-510511529
Cites: Vet Res. 2005 May-Jun;36(3):383-41015845231
Cites: J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2006 Jun 1;228(11):1723-3416740074
Cites: J Clin Microbiol. 2007 Aug;45(8):2411-817553970
Cites: Vet Res. 2009 Mar-Apr;40(2):2919284965
Cites: J Wildl Dis. 2008 Oct;44(4):871-718957643
Cites: Int J Parasitol. 2008 Sep;38(11):1319-2818452923
Cites: Emerg Infect Dis. 2009 Jun;15(6):925-719523293
Cites: Vet Res. 2010 Jan-Feb;41(1):119720009
Cites: Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2009 Dec;9(6):751-319402763
Cites: J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio). 2010 Feb;20(1):8-3020230432
Cites: J Med Microbiol. 2010 Jun;59(Pt 6):743-520223899
Cites: J Wildl Dis. 2010 Jul;46(3):947-5020688703
Cites: Vet Parasitol. 2010 Sep 20;172(3-4):183-9420615616
PubMed ID
25514118 View in PubMed
Less detail

Brucella Infection in Asian Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris lutris) on Bering Island, Russia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290856
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2017 10; 53(4):864-868
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
10-2017
Author
Tristan L Burgess
Christine Kreuder Johnson
Alexander Burdin
Verena A Gill
Angela M Doroff
Pamela Tuomi
Woutrina A Smith
Tracey Goldstein
Author Affiliation
1 Karen C. Drayer Wildlife Health Center, University of California Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, 1089 Veterinary Medicine Drive, Davis, California 95965, USA.
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2017 10; 53(4):864-868
Date
10-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animals
Bayes Theorem
Brucella - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Brucellosis - epidemiology - microbiology - veterinary
DNA, Bacterial - isolation & purification
Female
Islands - epidemiology
Male
Markov Chains
Monte Carlo Method
Otters - microbiology
Phylogeny
Polymerase Chain Reaction - veterinary
Rectum - microbiology
Russia - epidemiology
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Abstract
Infection with Brucella spp., long known as a cause of abortion, infertility, and reproductive loss in domestic livestock, has increasingly been documented in marine mammals over the past two decades. We report molecular evidence of Brucella infection in Asian sea otters (Enhydra lutris lutris). Brucella DNA was detected in 3 of 78 (4%) rectal swab samples collected between 2004 and 2006 on Bering Island, Russia. These 78 animals had previously been documented to have a Brucella seroprevalence of 28%, markedly higher than the prevalence documented in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in North America. All of the DNA sequences amplified were identical to one or more previously isolated Brucella spp. including strains from both terrestrial and marine hosts. Phylogenetic analysis of this sequence suggested that one animal was shedding Brucella spp. DNA with a sequence matching a Brucella abortus strain, whereas two animals yielded a sequence matching a group of strains including isolates classified as Brucella pinnipedialis and Brucella melitensis. Our results highlight the diversity of Brucella spp. within a single sea otter population.
PubMed ID
28715292 View in PubMed
Less detail

Clinical pathology and assessment of pathogen exposure in southern and Alaskan sea otters.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4771
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2003 Oct;39(4):837-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2003
Author
Krista D Hanni
Jonna A K Mazet
Frances M D Gulland
James Estes
Michelle Staedler
Michael J Murray
Melissa Miller
David A Jessup
Author Affiliation
Wildlife Health Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA. wildlifehealth@ucdavis.edu
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2003 Oct;39(4):837-50
Date
Oct-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Alaska - epidemiology
Animals
Animals, Wild - blood - parasitology - virology
Antibodies, Protozoan - blood
Blood Chemical Analysis - veterinary
California - epidemiology
Comparative Study
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Hematologic Tests - veterinary
Male
Otters - blood - parasitology - virology
Population Density
Population Dynamics
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Sex Factors
Toxoplasma - immunology
Toxoplasmosis, Animal - blood - epidemiology
Abstract
The southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) population in California (USA) and the Alaskan sea otter (E. lutris kenyoni) population in the Aleutian Islands (USA) chain have recently declined. In order to evaluate disease as a contributing factor to the declines, health assessments of these two sea otter populations were conducted by evaluating hematologic and/or serum biochemical values and exposure to six marine and terrestrial pathogens using blood collected during ongoing studies from 1995 through 2000. Samples from 72 free-ranging Alaskan, 78 free-ranging southern, and (for pathogen exposure only) 41 debilitated southern sea otters in rehabilitation facilities were evaluated and compared to investigate regional differences. Serum chemistry and hematology values did not indicate a specific disease process as a cause for the declines. Statistically significant differences were found between free-ranging adult southern and Alaskan population mean serum levels of creatinine kinase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, cholesterol, creatinine, glucose, phosphorous, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, and sodium. These were likely due to varying parasite loads, contaminant exposures, and physiologic or nutrition statuses. No free-ranging sea otters had signs of disease at capture, and prevalences of exposure to calicivirus, Brucella spp., and Leptospira spp. were low. The high prevalence (35%) of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging southern sea otters, lack of antibodies to this parasite in Alaskan sea otters, and the pathogen's propensity to cause mortality in southern sea otters suggests that this parasite may be important to sea otter population dynamics in California but not in Alaska. The evidence for exposure to pathogens of public health importance (e.g., Leptospira spp., T. gondii) in the southern sea otter population, and the naïveté of both populations to other pathogens (e.g., morbillivirus and Coccidiodes immitis) may have important implications for their management and recovery.
PubMed ID
14733279 View in PubMed
Less detail

Coxiella burnetii exposure in northern sea otters Enhydra lutris kenyoni.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267029
Source
Dis Aquat Organ. 2015 May 11;114(1):83-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-11-2015
Author
Colleen Duncan
Verena A Gill
Kristin Worman
Kathy Burek-Huntington
Kristy L Pabilonia
Sam Johnson
Kelly A Fitzpatrick
Christina Weller
Gilbert J Kersh
Source
Dis Aquat Organ. 2015 May 11;114(1):83-7
Date
May-11-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska - epidemiology
Animals
Coxiella burnetii
Endocarditis, Bacterial - epidemiology - microbiology - veterinary
Female
Male
Otters
Q Fever - epidemiology - veterinary
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Abstract
Valvular endocarditis has been well described in northern sea otters Enhydra lutris kenyoni of Alaska and in many cases no cause has been identified. It is also one of the most common conditions observed in people with chronic Coxiella burnetii infection. Given the high levels of C. burnetii exposure in marine mammals distributed throughout the same geographic range as the northern sea otter, and the presence of valvular lesions seen in otters, the objective of this study was to determine the level of C. burnetii exposure in otters and investigate any association between exposure, infection and valvular disease in this species. Archived serum from 75 live captured, apparently healthy otters (25 from each of 3 stocks) and 30 dead otters were tested for C. burnetii antibodies by indirect florescent antibody assay (IFA). Archived bone marrow and heart valves were tested for C. burnetii DNA by real-time PCR (qPCR). Overall, the seroprevalence in live otters was 17%, with significantly more exposed animals in the south central (40%) stock relative to the southwest (8%) and southeast (4%). The seroprevalence of animals sampled post mortem was 27%, although none of the bone marrow or heart valve samples were positive by qPCR. Results of this study failed to demonstrate a significant association between C. burnetii infection and valvular endocarditis in sea otters; however, the differing seroprevalence suggests that exposure opportunities vary geographically.
PubMed ID
25958809 View in PubMed
Less detail

Does human proximity affect antibody prevalence in marine-foraging river otters (Lontra canadensis)?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature78527
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2007 Jan;43(1):116-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2007
Author
Gaydos Joseph K
Conrad Patricia A
Gilardi Kirsten V K
Blundell Gail M
Ben-David Merav
Author Affiliation
University of California, Davis, Wildlife Health Center, Orcas Island Office, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, 1016 Deer Harbor Road, Eastsound, Washington 98245, USA. jkgaydos@ucdavis.edu
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2007 Jan;43(1):116-23
Date
Jan-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Animals, Wild
Antibodies, Bacterial - blood
Antibodies, Protozoan - blood
Antibodies, Viral - blood
Conservation of Natural Resources
Environment
Female
Humans
Leptospira interrogans - immunology
Leptospirosis - epidemiology - veterinary
Male
Otters - microbiology - parasitology - virology
Population Density
Sentinel Surveillance - veterinary
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Toxoplasma - immunology
Toxoplasmosis, Animal - epidemiology
Abstract
The investigation of diseases of free-ranging river otters (Lontra canadensis) is a primary conservation priority for this species; however, very little is known about diseases of river otters that forage in marine environments. To identify and better understand pathogens that could be important to marine-foraging river otters, other wildlife species, domestic animals, and humans and to determine if proximity to human population could be a factor in disease exposure, serum samples from 55 free-ranging marine-foraging river otters were tested for antibodies to selected pathogens. Thirty-five animals were captured in Prince William Sound, Alaska (USA), an area of low human density, and 20 were captured in the San Juan Islands, Washington State (USA), an area characterized by higher human density. Of 40 river otters tested by indirect immunofluorescent antibody test, 17.5% were seropositive (titer > or =320) for Toxoplasma gondii. All positive animals came from Washington. Of 35 river otters tested for antibodies to Leptospira interrogans using the microscopic agglutination test, 10 of 20 (50%) from Washington were seropositive (titer > or =200). None of the 15 tested animals from Alaska were positive. Antibodies to Neospora caninum (n=40), Sarcocystis neurona (n=40), Brucella abortus (n=55), avian influenza (n=40), canine distemper virus (n=55), phocine distemper virus (n=55), dolphin morbillivirus (n=55), porpoise morbillivirus (n=55), and Aleutian disease parvovirus (n=46) were not detected. Identifying exposure to T. gondii and L. interrogans in otters from Washington State but not in otters from Alaska suggests that living proximal to higher human density and its associated agricultural activities, domestic animals, and rodent populations could enhance river otter exposure to these pathogens.
PubMed ID
17347401 View in PubMed
Less detail