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Ingestion of crude oil: effects on digesta retention times and nutrient uptake in captive river otters.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4831
Source
J Comp Physiol [B]. 2000 Sep;170(5-6):419-28
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2000
Author
O A Ormseth
M. Ben-David
Author Affiliation
Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 99775, USA.
Source
J Comp Physiol [B]. 2000 Sep;170(5-6):419-28
Date
Sep-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Animal Nutrition
Animals
Carbon Isotopes
Digestion - drug effects
Environmental pollution
Feces - chemistry
Gastrointestinal Motility - drug effects - physiology
Hydrocarbons - pharmacokinetics
Intestinal Absorption - drug effects - physiology
Malabsorption Syndromes - chemically induced
Male
Otters - physiology
Petroleum - toxicity
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
Studies following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska indicated that river otters (Lontra canadensis) from oiled regions displayed symptoms of degraded health, including reduced body weight. We examined the fate of ingested oil in the digestive tract and its effects on gut function in captive river otters. Fifteen wild-caught males were assigned to three groups, two of which were given weathered crude oil in food (i.e., control, 5 ppm day(-1), and 50 ppm day(-1)) under controlled conditions at the Alaska Sealife Center. Using glass beads as non-specific digesta markers and stable isotope analysis, we determined the effects of ingested oil on retention time and nutrient uptake. Our data indicated that oil ingestion reduced marker retention time when we controlled for activity and meal size. Fecal isotope ratios suggested that absorption of lipids in the oiled otters might have been affected by reduced retention time of food. In addition, a dilution model indicated that as much as 80% of ingested oil was not absorbed in high-dose animals. Thus, while the ingestion of large quantities of weathered crude oil appears to reduce absorption of oil hydrocarbons and may alleviate systemic effects, it may concurrently affect body condition by impacting digestive function.
PubMed ID
11083525 View in PubMed
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Noninvasive reproductive steroid hormone estimates from fecal samples of captive female sea otters (Enhydra lutris).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4469
Source
Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2003 Oct 15;134(1):18-25
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-15-2003
Author
Shawn Larson
C J Casson
Sam Wasser
Author Affiliation
The Seattle Aquarium, About, 1483 Alaskan Way, Pier 59, Seattle, WA 98101-2059, USA. shawn.larson@seattle.gov
Source
Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2003 Oct 15;134(1):18-25
Date
Oct-15-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Analysis of Variance
Animals
Estrogens - analysis - metabolism
Estrous Cycle - metabolism
Feces - chemistry
Female
Otters - physiology
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Tests - methods - standards
Progestins - analysis - metabolism
Radioimmunoassay - methods
Reproduction - physiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
Noninvasive methods were validated for monitoring fecal metabolites of reproductive hormones (total estrogens and progestagens) in sea otters. Several captive female sea otters were sampled an average of two to three times per week over at least 1 year to document the reproductive hormone levels within each major reproductive event (estrus, anestrus, luteal phase, and pregnancy). We report significant differences in reproductive hormone levels consistent with most reproductive categories, as well as the minimal number of consecutive samples needed to accurately determine pregnancy using these methods.
PubMed ID
13129499 View in PubMed
Less detail