Skip header and navigation

2 records – page 1 of 1.

Sea otters, social justice, and ecosystem-service perceptions in Clayoquot Sound, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature288093
Source
Conserv Biol. 2017 Apr;31(2):343-352
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2017
Author
Jordan Levine
Michael Muthukrishna
Kai M A Chan
Terre Satterfield
Source
Conserv Biol. 2017 Apr;31(2):343-352
Date
Apr-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Animals
Canada
Conservation of Natural Resources
Ecosystem
Female
Humans
Male
Otters
Public Opinion
Social Justice
Abstract
We sought to take a first step toward better integration of social concerns into empirical ecosystem service (ES) work. We did this by adapting cognitive anthropological techniques to study the Clayoquot Sound social-ecological system on the Pacific coast of Canada's Vancouver Island. We used freelisting and ranking exercises to elicit how locals perceive ESs and to determine locals' preferred food species. We analyzed these data with the freelist-analysis software package ANTHROPAC. We considered the results in light of an ongoing trophic cascade caused by the government reintroduction of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) and their spread along the island's Pacific coast. We interviewed 67 local residents (n = 29 females, n = 38 males; n = 26 self-identified First Nation individuals, and n = 41 non-First Nation individuals) and 4 government managers responsible for conservation policy in the region. We found that the mental categories participants-including trained ecologists-used to think about ESs, did not match the standard academic ES typology. With reference to the latest ecological model projections for the region, we found that First Nations individuals and women were most likely to perceive the most immediate ES losses from the trophic cascade, with the most certainty. The inverse was found for men and non-First Nations individuals, generally. This suggests that 2 historically disadvantaged groups (i.e., First Nations and women) are poised to experience the immediate impacts of the government-initiated trophic cascade as yet another social injustice in a long line of perceived inequities. Left unaddressed, this could complicate efforts at multistakeholder ecosystem management in the region.
PubMed ID
27406400 View in PubMed
Less detail

STREPTOCOCCUS PHOCAE IN MARINE MAMMALS OF NORTHEASTERN PACIFIC AND ARCTIC CANADA: A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF 85 POSTMORTEM INVESTIGATIONS.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295313
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2018 01; 54(1):101-111
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
01-2018
Author
Nicole D Taurisano
Brian P Butler
Diana Stone
Harry Hariharan
Paul J Fields
Hugh W Ferguson
Martin Haulena
Paul Cotrell
Ole Nielsen
Stephen Raverty
Author Affiliation
1 ? Department of Pathobiology, St. George's University, School of Veterinary Medicine, True Blue, St. George, Grenada, West Indies.
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2018 01; 54(1):101-111
Date
01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Canada
Female
Male
Otters - microbiology
Phocoena - microbiology
Retrospective Studies
Seals, Earless - microbiology
Streptococcus - classification - isolation & purification
Abstract
: Streptococcus phocae is a pathogen of marine mammals, although its pathogenicity remains poorly understood. Recovery of this bacterium from asymptomatic carriers suggests that it is an opportunistic pathogen. We investigated the role of S. phocae in naturally occurring disease and its significance as a pathogen based on postmortem investigations. Between 2007 and 2012, 1,696 whole carcasses, tissue samples, or both were submitted from the northeastern Pacific and Arctic Canada for diagnostic testing. Streptococcus phocae was cultured from phocids ( n=66), otariids ( n=12), harbor porpoises ( Phocoena phocoena; n=5), and sea otters ( Enhydra lutris; n=2). Pathologic manifestations of S. phocae-associated disease included localized, as well as systemic, inflammatory lesions with common findings of suppurative bronchopneumonia ( n=17) and bacteremia ( n=27). Lung lesions were frequently culture-positive for S. phocae, suggesting commensal colonization of the oropharynx with subsequent opportunistic infection of the respiratory tract during tissue injury, coinfection, immunosuppression, or other debilitating conditions. The presence of a positive spleen culture, and interpretations at necropsy and histopathology, were used to determine the presence of S. phocae bacteremia. Less frequent lesions that were culture positive for S. phocae included abscesses ( n=9), meningitis ( n=7), and cellulitis ( n=1). The majority of cases with S. phocae lesions featured pre-existing conditions that presumably contributed to some degree of debilitation or immunosuppression, including emaciation ( n=29), liver mercury accumulation ( n=29), trauma ( n=22), severe pulmonary or cardiovascular nematodiasis ( n=9), concurrent bacterial or viral infections ( n=8), or sarcocystosis ( n=6). These findings suggest that S. phocae could be characterized as an opportunistic pathogen, associated with debilitating conditions in stranded and rehabilitating marine mammals. Wildlife investigators can use these results to draw more definitive conclusions regarding positive S. phocae cultures during postmortem studies in marine mammals.
PubMed ID
28982020 View in PubMed
Less detail