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Climate Degradation and Extreme Icing Events Constrain Life in Cold-Adapted Mammals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296102
Source
Sci Rep. 2018 01 18; 8(1):1156
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Date
01-18-2018
Author
J Berger
C Hartway
A Gruzdev
M Johnson
Author Affiliation
Fish, Wildlife and Conservation Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, 80523, USA. jberger@wcs.org.
Source
Sci Rep. 2018 01 18; 8(1):1156
Date
01-18-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Body Size
Climate Change - mortality
Cold Climate
Disasters - history
Female
History, 19th Century
History, 21st Century
Male
Otters - physiology
Rain
Ruminants - physiology
Snow
Tsunamis - history
Whales - physiology
Abstract
Despite the growth in knowledge about the effects of a warming Arctic on its cold-adapted species, the mechanisms by which these changes affect animal populations remain poorly understood. Increasing temperatures, declining sea ice and altered wind and precipitation patterns all may affect the fitness and abundance of species through multiple direct and indirect pathways. Here we demonstrate previously unknown effects of rain-on-snow (ROS) events, winter precipitation, and ice tidal surges on the Arctic's largest land mammal. Using novel field data across seven years and three Alaskan and Russian sites, we show arrested skeletal growth in juvenile muskoxen resulting from unusually dry winter conditions and gestational ROS events, with the inhibitory effects on growth from ROS events lasting up to three years post-partum. Further, we describe the simultaneous entombment of 52 muskoxen in ice during a Chukchi Sea winter tsunami (ivuniq in Iñupiat), and link rapid freezing to entrapment of Arctic whales and otters. Our results illustrate how once unusual, but increasingly frequent Arctic weather events affect some cold-adapted mammals, and suggest that an understanding of species responses to a changing Arctic can be enhanced by coalescing groundwork, rare events, and insights from local people.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29348632 View in PubMed
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Recent changes in body size of the Eurasian otter Lutra lutra in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature100035
Source
Ambio. 2010 Nov;39(7):496-503
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2010
Author
Yoram Yom-Tov
Anna Roos
Peter Mortensen
Ã?ystein Wiig
Shlomith Yom-Tov
Thrine M Heggberget
Author Affiliation
Department of Zoology, Tel Aviv University, Israel. yomtov@post.tau.ac.il
Source
Ambio. 2010 Nov;39(7):496-503
Date
Nov-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Body Size
Female
Global warming
Ice Cover
Male
Otters - growth & development
Sweden
Abstract
We studied geographical and temporal body size trends among 169 adult museum specimens of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) collected in Sweden between 1962 and 2008, whose sex, year of collection, and locality were known. Skull size and body mass increased significantly in relation to the year of collection, and skull size (but not body mass) was significantly and negatively related to latitude, contrasting Bergmann's rule and the trend found for Norwegian otters. Latitudinal differences in body size between the two countries may be due to differences in food availability. The temporal increase in body size among Swedish otters resembled that observed for Norway otters, though Swedish otters are smaller with respect to their Norwegian counterparts. Latitude and year represent a combination of environmental factors, including ambient temperature in the year of collection as well as the number of days of ice coverage. We replaced the above factors with mean annual temperature or the number of days of ice coverage, and found that each of these factors explains a similar proportion of the variation in body size as did latitude and year. We hypothesize that this temporal increase in body size is related to a combination of factors, including reduced energy expenditure resulting from increasing ambient temperature, and increased food availability from longer ice-free periods.
PubMed ID
21090004 View in PubMed
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