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Novel poxvirus infection in northern and southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni and Enhydra lutris neiris), Alaska and California, USA.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature260987
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2014 Jul;50(3):607-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2014
Author
Pamela A Tuomi
Michael J Murray
Michael M Garner
Caroline E C Goertz
Robert W Nordhausen
Kathleen A Burek-Huntington
David M Getzy
Ole Nielsen
Linda L Archer
Heather T D Maness
James F X Wellehan
Thomas B Waltzek
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2014 Jul;50(3):607-15
Date
Jul-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska - epidemiology
Animals
Animals, Wild
California - epidemiology
DNA, Viral - isolation & purification
Female
Otters
Phylogeny
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Poxviridae - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Poxviridae Infections - epidemiology - veterinary - virology
Skin Diseases, Viral - epidemiology - veterinary - virology
Abstract
Small superficially ulcerated skin lesions were observed between October 2009 and September 2011 during captive care of two orphaned sea otter pups: one northern (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) in Alaska and one southern (Enhydra lutris nereis) in California. Inclusions consistent with poxviral infection were diagnosed by histopathology in both cases. Virions consistent with poxvirus virions were seen on electron microscopy in the northern sea otter, and the virus was successfully propagated in cell culture. DNA extraction, pan-chordopoxviral PCR amplification, and sequencing of the DNA-dependent DNA polymerase gene revealed that both cases were caused by a novel AT-rich poxvirus. Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses found that the virus is divergent from other known poxviruses at a level consistent with a novel genus. These cases were self-limiting and did not appear to be associated with systemic illness. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a poxvirus in a mustelid species. The source of this virus, mode of transmission, zoonotic potential, and biological significance are undetermined.
PubMed ID
24807180 View in PubMed
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STREPTOCOCCUS PHOCAE IN MARINE MAMMALS OF NORTHEASTERN PACIFIC AND ARCTIC CANADA: A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF 85 POSTMORTEM INVESTIGATIONS.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295313
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2018 01; 54(1):101-111
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
01-2018
Author
Nicole D Taurisano
Brian P Butler
Diana Stone
Harry Hariharan
Paul J Fields
Hugh W Ferguson
Martin Haulena
Paul Cotrell
Ole Nielsen
Stephen Raverty
Author Affiliation
1 ? Department of Pathobiology, St. George's University, School of Veterinary Medicine, True Blue, St. George, Grenada, West Indies.
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2018 01; 54(1):101-111
Date
01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Canada
Female
Male
Otters - microbiology
Phocoena - microbiology
Retrospective Studies
Seals, Earless - microbiology
Streptococcus - classification - isolation & purification
Abstract
: Streptococcus phocae is a pathogen of marine mammals, although its pathogenicity remains poorly understood. Recovery of this bacterium from asymptomatic carriers suggests that it is an opportunistic pathogen. We investigated the role of S. phocae in naturally occurring disease and its significance as a pathogen based on postmortem investigations. Between 2007 and 2012, 1,696 whole carcasses, tissue samples, or both were submitted from the northeastern Pacific and Arctic Canada for diagnostic testing. Streptococcus phocae was cultured from phocids ( n=66), otariids ( n=12), harbor porpoises ( Phocoena phocoena; n=5), and sea otters ( Enhydra lutris; n=2). Pathologic manifestations of S. phocae-associated disease included localized, as well as systemic, inflammatory lesions with common findings of suppurative bronchopneumonia ( n=17) and bacteremia ( n=27). Lung lesions were frequently culture-positive for S. phocae, suggesting commensal colonization of the oropharynx with subsequent opportunistic infection of the respiratory tract during tissue injury, coinfection, immunosuppression, or other debilitating conditions. The presence of a positive spleen culture, and interpretations at necropsy and histopathology, were used to determine the presence of S. phocae bacteremia. Less frequent lesions that were culture positive for S. phocae included abscesses ( n=9), meningitis ( n=7), and cellulitis ( n=1). The majority of cases with S. phocae lesions featured pre-existing conditions that presumably contributed to some degree of debilitation or immunosuppression, including emaciation ( n=29), liver mercury accumulation ( n=29), trauma ( n=22), severe pulmonary or cardiovascular nematodiasis ( n=9), concurrent bacterial or viral infections ( n=8), or sarcocystosis ( n=6). These findings suggest that S. phocae could be characterized as an opportunistic pathogen, associated with debilitating conditions in stranded and rehabilitating marine mammals. Wildlife investigators can use these results to draw more definitive conclusions regarding positive S. phocae cultures during postmortem studies in marine mammals.
PubMed ID
28982020 View in PubMed
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