This study examines whether the relationships between activity limitations and independence are mediated by coping efficacy.
Data come from a cross-sectional survey of 286 adults, aged 55 or older, with osteoarthritis (OA) and/or osteoporosis (OP). Physical independence was assessed by asking to what extent respondents' OA/OP had affected their independence on a 5-point scale from 'not at all' to 'a great deal'. Activity limitations were examined in three domains: personal care, community mobility, and household activity. A coping efficacy scale was derived from three items scored on a 5-point Likert-type scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree. Structural equation modelling was used to test the model.
Activity limitation in household activities was directly associated with perceptions of independence, with a statistically significant standardized path coefficients of -0.32. The effect of activity limitation in personal care was partially mediated by coping efficacy with a direct effect of -0.41 which was partially offset by coping efficacy to give a net effect of -0.308. The effect of community mobility on independence was completely mediated through coping efficacy with significant standardized path coefficients of -0.85 (community mobility to coping efficacy) and -0.14 (coping efficacy to independence). The overall model's goodness of fit was excellent (R =0.59, ch-square/df=1.4, CFI=0.97, and NNFI=0.97).
Activity limitation had a detrimental effect on the level of self-perceived independence. Coping efficacy showed a significant mediating effect between activity limitation and self-perceived independence for the domains of personal care and community mobility, but not household tasks. This study suggests that how activity limitation affects perceptions of independence varies across activity limitation domains, and indicates the importance of incorporating activity limitation domains in future studies.
Past research has established the link between low energy fractures and the risk for future fractures. These fractures are potential markers for investigation of bone health, and may be precursors for osteoporosis. In spite of its significant public health burden, including burden of illness and economic costs, many individuals are not aware of the risk factors for and consequences of osteoporosis. This is a study of women aged 40 and older who experienced low energy fractures (e.g., from non-trauma sources and falls from no higher than standing height). We gathered data, using focus group interviews, about their experiences and understanding of the fractures in relation to bone health. Women often attributed the fractures to particular situations and external events (e.g., slipping on ice, tripping on uneven ground), and viewed the fractures as accidents. Women often felt that others are at risk for poor bone health, but believed that they themselves are different from those really at risk. Although the fractures are potential triggers for preventive efforts, few women connected their fracture to future risk. What is perceived by women (and others) as random and an accident is often a predictable event if underlying risk factors are identified. Only when there is more awareness of poor bone health as a disease process and fractures as markers for bone fragility will women, men and health care providers take action to prevent future fractures and established bone disease.
To evaluate the effects of a balance training program including dual- and multi-task exercises on fall-related self-efficacy, fear of falling, gait and balance performance, and physical function in older adults with osteoporosis with an increased risk of falling and to evaluate whether additional physical activity would further improve the effects.
Randomized controlled trial, including three groups: two intervention groups (Training, or Training+Physical activity) and one Control group, with a 12-week follow-up.
Stockholm County, Sweden.
Ninety-six older adults, aged 66-87, with verified osteoporosis.
A specific and progressive balance training program including dual- and multi-task three times/week for 12 weeks, and physical activity for 30 minutes, three times/week.
Fall-related self-efficacy (Falls Efficacy Scale-International), fear of falling (single-item question - 'In general, are you afraid of falling?'), gait speed with and without a cognitive dual-task at preferred pace and fast walking (GAITRite®), balance performance tests (one-leg stance, and modified figure of eight), and physical function (Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument).
Both intervention groups significantly improved their fall-related self-efficacy as compared to the controls (p = 0.034, 4 points) and improved their balance performance. Significant differences over time and between groups in favour of the intervention groups were found for walking speed with a dual-task (p=0.003), at fast walking speed (p=0.008), and for advanced lower extremity physical function (p=0.034).
This balance training program, including dual- and multi-task, improves fall-related self-efficacy, gait speed, balance performance, and physical function in older adults with osteoporosis.
Daily physical education in the school curriculum in prepubertal girls during 1 year is followed by an increase in bone mineral accrual and bone width--data from the prospective controlled Malmö pediatric osteoporosis prevention study.
The aim of this study was to evaluate a general school-based 1-year exercise intervention program in a population-based cohort of girls at Tanner stage I. Fifty-three girls aged 7-9 years were included. The school curriculum-based exercise intervention program included 40 minutes/school day. Fifty healthy age-matched girls assigned to the general school curriculum of 60 minutes physical activity/week served as controls. Bone mineral content (BMC, g) and areal bone mineral density (aBMD, g/cm(2)) were measured with dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the total body (TB), lumbar spine (L2-L4 vertebrae), third lumbar vertebra (L3), femoral neck (FN), and leg. Volumetric bone mineral density (g/cm(3)) and bone width were calculated at L3 and FN. Total lean body mass and total fat mass were estimated from the TB scan. No differences at baseline were found in age, anthropometrics, or bone parameters when the groups were compared. The annual gain in BMC was 4.7 percentage points higher in the lumbar spine and 9.5 percentage points higher in L3 in cases than in controls (both P
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a dominantly inherited disease. Skeletal ailments such as short stature, kyphoscoliosis, tibial bowing and pseudarthrosis are common osseous manifestations of NF1. Previously, a correlation with scoliosis and decreased bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine has been reported in 12 NF1 patients. A total of 35 NF1 patients and 26 healthy controls were included in the present study. Of the participants over 20 years of age (26 NF1 patients and all controls) 14 were male and 12 were female, seven of whom were premenopausal. The controls were matched for age, sex and body mass index (BMI). Physical activity and medical history of NF1 patients were evaluated to screen the fractures and osseous manifestations of the disease and to rule out the factors that effect BMD. BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured with DXA, using a total body program. The present study detected a lowered bone mineral density (p =0.028) and content (p
To describe objectively-measured physical activity levels and patterns among community-dwelling older adults with osteoporosis, impaired balance, and fear of falling, and to explore the associations with gait, balance performance, falls self-efficacy, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL).
Ninety-four individuals (75.6 ± 5.4 years) were included. Physical activity was assessed with pedometers and accelerometers. Mean steps/day, dichotomized into
The aim of this qualitative study was to increase understanding of the importance of osteoporosis information and knowledge for patients' ways of handling osteoporosis in their everyday lives. Interviews were performed with 14 patients recruited from two English university hospitals and 12 patients from a Danish university hospital. Critical psychology was used as a theoretical framework for the data analysis, which aimed at shedding light on patients' ways of conducting everyday life with osteoporosis. The themes that emerged from the analysis showed that life conditions influenced the way in which risk, pain and osteoporosis were handled. Everyday life was also influenced by patients' attitude to treatment. The patients who were experiencing emotional difficulties in handling osteoporosis were not those suffering from severe osteoporosis and fractures. Approaches to living with knowledge of future fracture risk varied according to the individual patient's resourcefulness and experiences.
The epidemiology of serious fractures in adults relates less to the frequency of forceful accidents and more directly to the loss of bone in middle-aged and older people. To support this statement, hospital discharge rates for fractures in recent years are examined from different geographic areas. Rates for the United States rise with age, so that serious fractures form 10 percent of all hospital discharges at 85 years and older. Saskatchewan data suggest that rates for men remain low until 60 years; for women the figures began to rise at 45 years, before many had reached the menopause. Rates are lower among women than men in Saskatchewan until around 50 years, surpassing those of men at age 55 and older. Among Medicare enrollees in 1967 in the United States, women had higher discharge rates for fractures than men of the same age and race. Whites also had higher rates than blacks, so much so that white males had higher rates than black women of the same age. Such data confirm the past impression that blacks who survive into the older ages are a biological elite, more able to maintain bone strength than whites of either sex, although by no means being exempt from bone loss with age. A fractured femur was the most frequent diagnosis, forming a higher percentage of all fractures in women than men, and rising steeply with age in both sexes. The pattern of fractures by sex differs from the epidemiology of forceful accidents, which more often involve men than women. Bone loss with age, or osteoporosis, is perhaps the most powerful host factor to dominate the picture of fractures in the elderly. The existing possibilities for preventing or slowing this change are thus assessed; women may no longer accept as natural the widespread bone loss and accompanying fractures that lower the quality of life in later years.
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Using plain hand radiographs, the age dependence of various bone-aging traits (bone mineral density [BMD], cortical index [CI], osteoarthritis [OA], and osseographic [OSS] scores) was evaluated to test whether the correlation among these traits is an individual- or population-based phenomenon. In addition, the effect of anthropometric features on variation of bone-aging traits was estimated. The study included 1,295 individuals from Chuvasha, Russia, 18 to 89 years. BMD was measured from the compact compartment of the middle and distal phalanges of both 3(rd) fingers. The CI of the II-IV metacarpal bones and II-IV proximal phalanges was obtained. The development of OA was based on the standard Kellgren and Lawrence grading scheme for 28 hand joints. OSS score, a surrogate measure that takes into account different kinds of bone changes, was also obtained for each individual. Body weight and height, eight skinfold thicknesses on the trunk and extremities, and breadths of the long bones were measured. Sex-based univariate analyses and multivariate statistical analysis showed the following: 1) Age dependence was defined more strongly in "OA-linked" compared to "osteoporosis (OP)-linked" traits; 2) While "OP-linked" bone-aging traits correlated with age differently between sexes, "OA-linked" traits did not; 3) The strong interrelationship between OA-linked and OP-linked traits in both sexes became very weak and statistically insignificant (P > 0.10) after adjustment for age. Thus, OA and OP conditions in the same individual develop independently and probably reflect different underlying physiological mechanisms. 4) Anthropometric characteristics were significantly correlated with bone-aging traits, but correlations were low (r
Physical activity (PA) is an important modifiable risk factor for both bone mineral density (BMD) and body mass index (BMI). However, BMI is itself strongly predictive of BMD. Our aim was to determine the association between PA and BMD, with consideration of BMI as a potential mediating factor.
The Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos) is a population-based prospective cohort study of Canadian women and men. PA was determined from interviewer-administered questionnaires at baseline and Year 5 and summarized as daily energy expenditure in total metabolic equivalents of the task multiplied by minutes/day (MET*m/d). Height, weight, and total hip and lumbar spine BMD were measured at baseline and Year 5. General linear models assessed relationships between PA and BMD, both cross-sectionally (baseline PA with baseline BMD) and longitudinally (average PA and change in PA with change in BMD). BMI was considered as a mediating factor. Potential confounders included age, center, education, caffeine intake, alcohol exposure, smoking history, history of weight-cycling, age at menarche, past use of oral contraceptives, history of >3 months missed menstruation, menopausal status, and antiresorptive use, as relevant.
The study included 2855 men and 6442 women. PA was inversely associated with BMI at baseline, and an increase in PA between baseline and Year 5 was associated with a decrease in BMI, with 0.41 (95% CI: 0.22, 0.60) kg/m(2) loss per 1000 MET*m/d increase (in men) and 0.40 (95% CI: 0.23, 0.57) kg/m(2) loss per 1000 MET*m/d increase (in women). BMI was strongly associated with BMD, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. However, increased PA was associated with a small increase in total hip BMD, 0.004 (95% CI: 0.000-0.008) g/cm(2) per 1000 MET*m/d (in men) and 0.003 (95% CI: 0.000-0.007) g/cm(2) per 1000 MET*m/d (in women). Average PA was associated with an increase in lumbar spine BMD in women, but not in men; it was not associated with change in total hip BMD in either sex.
Increased PA is associated with an increase in BMD and a concomitant decrease in BMI. These findings suggest that population-level interventions to increase PA would favorably impact bone and other health outcomes.
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