The flame-retardant tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (TDBrPP) was in the 1970s banned for uses in textiles that may be in contact with the skin, owing to strong suspicions that the substance was a human carcinogen. The substance is looked for but rarely detected in samples from the built and natural environments, but there are indications that TDBrPP is still in use. Here, we report the measurement of a polymer-water partition coefficient (Kpw) for two types of silicone rubber (SR), allowing quantitative estimation of freely dissolved concentrations of TDBrPP by passive sampling in water. We found levels of 100 to 200 pg/L in two Arctic rivers that were sampled during a 2014-2015 survey of contamination using passive samplers in Norwegian and Russian rivers draining into the Barents Sea. We also report the widespread presence of other organophosphorus flame retardants in this survey of eight rivers that drain into the Barents Sea.
The occurrence of eight phosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) was investigated in 53 composite food samples from 12 food categories, collected in 2015 for a Swedish food market basket study. 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPHP), detected in most food categories, had the highest median concentrations (9 ng/g ww, pastries). It was followed by triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) (2.6 ng/g ww, fats/oils), tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) (1.0 ng/g ww, fats/oils), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) (1.0 ng/g ww, fats/oils), and tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP) (0.80 ng/g ww, pastries). Tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP), tri-n-butyl phosphate (TNBP), and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) were not detected in the analyzed food samples. The major contributor to the total dietary intake was EHDPHP (57%), and the food categories which contributed the most to the total intake of PFRs were processed food, such as cereals (26%), pastries (10%), sugar/sweets (11%), and beverages (17%). The daily per capita intake of PFRs (TCEP, TPHP, EHDPHP, TDCIPP, TCIPP) from food ranged from 406 to 3266 ng/day (or 6-49 ng/kg bw/day), lower than the health-based reference doses. This is the first study reporting PFR intakes from other food categories than fish (here accounting for 3%). Our results suggest that the estimated human dietary exposure to PFRs may be equally important to the ingestion of dust.
Several studies have suggested that exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides is detrimental for health, and in particular for children where moderate doses may have a negative impact on the neurodevelopment. This study surveys levels of the 6 non-specific urinary metabolites (dialkyl phosphates (DAPs)) of OP pesticides in Norwegian mothers (n=48) and their children (n=54), and examines the diurnal variation in concentrations as well as associations with consumption of specific food products. The highest median concentration measured in urine was found for dimethyl thiophosphate (5.3 and 5.5ng/mLSG; specific gravity corrected) for both children and mothers, respectively, followed by diethyl phosphate (3.8 and 5.3ng/mLSG, respectively). The intra-class correlation coefficients of DAPs among mothers were moderate (0.49-0.68), and consumption of fruit explained between 8% and 55% of the variations in the mothers' and their children's urinary DAP concentrations.
Indoor dust has been acknowledged as a major source of flame retardants (FRs) and dust ingestion is considered a major route of exposure for humans. In the present study, we investigated the presence of PBDEs and alternative FRs such as emerging halogenated FRs (EHFRs) and organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) in indoor dust samples from British and Norwegian houses as well as British stores and offices. BDE209 was the most abundant PBDE congener with median concentrations of 4700ngg(-1) and 3400ngg(-1) in UK occupational and house dust, respectively, 30 and 20 fold higher than in Norwegian house dust. Monomeric PFRs (m-PFRs), including triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), tris(chloropropyl) phosphate (TCPP) and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) dominated all the studied environments. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of isodecyldiphenyl phosphate (iDPP) and trixylenyl phosphate (TXP) in indoor environments. iDPP was the most abundant oligomeric PFR (o-PFR) in all dust samples, with median concentrations one order of magnitude higher than TXP and bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate (BDP). iDPP and TXP worst-case scenario exposures for British workers during an 8h exposure in the occupational environment were equal to 34 and 1.4ngkgbw(-1)day(-1), respectively. The worst-case scenario for BDE209 estimated exposure for British toddlers (820ngkgbw(-1)day(-1)) did not exceeded the proposed reference dose (RfD) (7000ngkgbw(-1)day(-1)), while exposures for sum of m-PFRs (Sm-PFRs) in British toddlers and adults (17,900 and 785ngkgbw(-1)day(-1) respectively) were an order of magnitude higher than for Norwegian toddlers and adults (1600 and 70ngkgbw(-1)day(-1)).
Mass spectrum analysis revealed differences in general contents of low-molecular peptides spectrums in chemical weapons extermination object staffers, in comparison with the reference group. Findings are that serum paraoxonase activity in chemical weapons extermination object staffers in significantly increased.
The levels and relative proportions of 11 organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers (OPs), some of which are reportedly toxic to aquatic organisms, were investigated in human breast milk and samples of fish and mussels from Swedish lakes and coastal areas in order to assess spatial differences in environmental exposure and spatial and temporal differences in human exposure. Some of the biota samples were collected at locations with known potential sources of OPs, but most were collected in background locations. Tris-2-chloroisopropyl phosphate (TCPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) dominated in the biota with levels ranging from 170 to 770 ng g(-1) for TCPP in perch and between 21 and 180 ng g(-1) for TPP. In milk samples, TCPP (median 45 ng g(-1)) and tributyl phosphate (median 12 ng g(-1)) were the most frequently occurring OPs. Among samples of fish from background locations, the concentrations and profiles of most OPs were quite similar, indicating that their sources were diffuse. However, in fish from sample locations near known sources, there were marked differences in OP concentrations and profiles. Fish from a stream receiving surface water from Arlanda airport displayed high levels of OPs (10 200 ng g(-1)) that are commonly used in aircraft hydraulic fluids. Fish collected at points 1 or 2 km downstream of sewage treatment plants showed significantly higher levels of tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP), one of the most typically abundant OP in effluents from such plants. In the milk samples obtained from women in different towns no distinct differences were detected in OP concentrations or profiles. However, the levels of TBEP tended to be higher in milk collected 10 years ago than in milk collected more recently. However, human exposure to OPs through eating fish or to breastfeeding babies seems to be of minor importance in relation to other potential sources, such as indoor dust inhalation and ingestion.