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Detection of tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate and other organophosphorous compounds in Arctic rivers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299482
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 Oct; 25(28):28730-28737
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Oct-2018
Author
Ian J Allan
Øyvind A Garmo
Jan Thomas Rundberget
Petr Terentjev
Guttorm Christensen
Nikolay A Kashulin
Author Affiliation
Oslo Centre for Interdisciplinary Environmental and Social Research, Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Gaustadalléen 21, NO-0349, Oslo, Norway. ian.allan@niva.no.
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 Oct; 25(28):28730-28737
Date
Oct-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Environmental monitoring
Flame Retardants - analysis
Norway
Organophosphates - analysis
Organophosphorus Compounds - analysis
Rivers
Russia
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
The flame-retardant tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (TDBrPP) was in the 1970s banned for uses in textiles that may be in contact with the skin, owing to strong suspicions that the substance was a human carcinogen. The substance is looked for but rarely detected in samples from the built and natural environments, but there are indications that TDBrPP is still in use. Here, we report the measurement of a polymer-water partition coefficient (Kpw) for two types of silicone rubber (SR), allowing quantitative estimation of freely dissolved concentrations of TDBrPP by passive sampling in water. We found levels of 100 to 200 pg/L in two Arctic rivers that were sampled during a 2014-2015 survey of contamination using passive samplers in Norwegian and Russian rivers draining into the Barents Sea. We also report the widespread presence of other organophosphorus flame retardants in this survey of eight rivers that drain into the Barents Sea.
PubMed ID
30121771 View in PubMed
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Dietary intake of phosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) using Swedish food market basket estimations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature281487
Source
Food Chem Toxicol. 2017 Feb;100:1-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2017
Author
Giulia Poma
Anders Glynn
Govindan Malarvannan
Adrian Covaci
Per Ola Darnerud
Source
Food Chem Toxicol. 2017 Feb;100:1-7
Date
Feb-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Diet
Environmental Exposure - analysis
Environmental Pollutants - analysis
Flame Retardants - analysis
Food Analysis - methods
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Humans
Organophosphorus Compounds - analysis
Quality Control
Sweden
Abstract
The occurrence of eight phosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) was investigated in 53 composite food samples from 12 food categories, collected in 2015 for a Swedish food market basket study. 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPHP), detected in most food categories, had the highest median concentrations (9 ng/g ww, pastries). It was followed by triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) (2.6 ng/g ww, fats/oils), tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) (1.0 ng/g ww, fats/oils), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) (1.0 ng/g ww, fats/oils), and tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP) (0.80 ng/g ww, pastries). Tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP), tri-n-butyl phosphate (TNBP), and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) were not detected in the analyzed food samples. The major contributor to the total dietary intake was EHDPHP (57%), and the food categories which contributed the most to the total intake of PFRs were processed food, such as cereals (26%), pastries (10%), sugar/sweets (11%), and beverages (17%). The daily per capita intake of PFRs (TCEP, TPHP, EHDPHP, TDCIPP, TCIPP) from food ranged from 406 to 3266 ng/day (or 6-49 ng/kg bw/day), lower than the health-based reference doses. This is the first study reporting PFR intakes from other food categories than fish (here accounting for 3%). Our results suggest that the estimated human dietary exposure to PFRs may be equally important to the ingestion of dust.
PubMed ID
27965106 View in PubMed
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Exposure to organophosphorus pesticides in Norwegian mothers and their children: Diurnal variability in concentrations of their biomarkers and associations with food consumption.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature293526
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2017 Jul 15; 590-591:655-662
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jul-15-2017
Author
Enrique Cequier
Amrit Kaur Sakhi
Line Småstuen Haug
Cathrine Thomsen
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Exposure and Epidemiology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404, Nydalen, 0403 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: enrique.cequier@fhi.no.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2017 Jul 15; 590-591:655-662
Date
Jul-15-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Biomarkers - urine
Child
Circadian Rhythm
Dietary Exposure - analysis
Female
Fruit
Humans
Mothers
Norway
Organophosphorus Compounds - analysis
Pesticides - analysis
Phosphates - urine
Abstract
Several studies have suggested that exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides is detrimental for health, and in particular for children where moderate doses may have a negative impact on the neurodevelopment. This study surveys levels of the 6 non-specific urinary metabolites (dialkyl phosphates (DAPs)) of OP pesticides in Norwegian mothers (n=48) and their children (n=54), and examines the diurnal variation in concentrations as well as associations with consumption of specific food products. The highest median concentration measured in urine was found for dimethyl thiophosphate (5.3 and 5.5ng/mLSG; specific gravity corrected) for both children and mothers, respectively, followed by diethyl phosphate (3.8 and 5.3ng/mLSG, respectively). The intra-class correlation coefficients of DAPs among mothers were moderate (0.49-0.68), and consumption of fruit explained between 8% and 55% of the variations in the mothers' and their children's urinary DAP concentrations.
PubMed ID
28284640 View in PubMed
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Legacy and alternative flame retardants in Norwegian and UK indoor environment: Implications of human exposure via dust ingestion.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature283507
Source
Environ Int. 2017 May;102:48-56
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2017
Author
Katerina Kademoglou
Fuchao Xu
Juan Antonio Padilla-Sanchez
Line Småstuen Haug
Adrian Covaci
Chris D Collins
Source
Environ Int. 2017 May;102:48-56
Date
May-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Air Pollution, Indoor - analysis
Benzhydryl Compounds - analysis
Dust - analysis
Eating
Environmental Exposure - analysis
Flame Retardants - analysis
Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers - analysis
Humans
Norway
Occupational Exposure - analysis
Organophosphates - analysis
Organophosphorus Compounds - analysis
Phenols - analysis
United Kingdom
Abstract
Indoor dust has been acknowledged as a major source of flame retardants (FRs) and dust ingestion is considered a major route of exposure for humans. In the present study, we investigated the presence of PBDEs and alternative FRs such as emerging halogenated FRs (EHFRs) and organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) in indoor dust samples from British and Norwegian houses as well as British stores and offices. BDE209 was the most abundant PBDE congener with median concentrations of 4700ngg(-1) and 3400ngg(-1) in UK occupational and house dust, respectively, 30 and 20 fold higher than in Norwegian house dust. Monomeric PFRs (m-PFRs), including triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), tris(chloropropyl) phosphate (TCPP) and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) dominated all the studied environments. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of isodecyldiphenyl phosphate (iDPP) and trixylenyl phosphate (TXP) in indoor environments. iDPP was the most abundant oligomeric PFR (o-PFR) in all dust samples, with median concentrations one order of magnitude higher than TXP and bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate (BDP). iDPP and TXP worst-case scenario exposures for British workers during an 8h exposure in the occupational environment were equal to 34 and 1.4ngkgbw(-1)day(-1), respectively. The worst-case scenario for BDE209 estimated exposure for British toddlers (820ngkgbw(-1)day(-1)) did not exceeded the proposed reference dose (RfD) (7000ngkgbw(-1)day(-1)), while exposures for sum of m-PFRs (Sm-PFRs) in British toddlers and adults (17,900 and 785ngkgbw(-1)day(-1) respectively) were an order of magnitude higher than for Norwegian toddlers and adults (1600 and 70ngkgbw(-1)day(-1)).
PubMed ID
28190611 View in PubMed
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[New approaches to early diagnosis of chronic organophosphorus chemicals intoxication in workers at chemical weapons extermination objects].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature150421
Source
Med Tr Prom Ekol. 2009;(4):23-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
V N Babakov
N V Goncharov
A S Radilov
E P Glashkina
E P Podol'skaia
E E Ermolaeva
V V Shilov
D S Prokof'eva
N G Voitenko
N A Egorov
Source
Med Tr Prom Ekol. 2009;(4):23-6
Date
2009
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Chemical Warfare - prevention & control
Chemical Warfare Agents - analysis - poisoning
Chromatography, Gas - methods
Diagnosis, Differential
Humans
Incidence
Occupational Diseases - diagnosis - epidemiology
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Organophosphate Poisoning
Organophosphorus Compounds - analysis
Russia - epidemiology
Spectrophotometry, Atomic - methods
Time Factors
Abstract
Mass spectrum analysis revealed differences in general contents of low-molecular peptides spectrums in chemical weapons extermination object staffers, in comparison with the reference group. Findings are that serum paraoxonase activity in chemical weapons extermination object staffers in significantly increased.
PubMed ID
19514167 View in PubMed
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Organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers in marine and fresh water biota and in human milk.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144298
Source
J Environ Monit. 2010 Apr;12(4):943-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2010
Author
Anneli Marklund Sundkvist
Ulrika Olofsson
Peter Haglund
Author Affiliation
Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
Source
J Environ Monit. 2010 Apr;12(4):943-51
Date
Apr-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Environmental Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Fishes
Flame Retardants - analysis
Humans
Milk, human - chemistry
Mytilus - chemistry
Organophosphorus Compounds - analysis
Plasticizers - analysis
Sweden
Abstract
The levels and relative proportions of 11 organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers (OPs), some of which are reportedly toxic to aquatic organisms, were investigated in human breast milk and samples of fish and mussels from Swedish lakes and coastal areas in order to assess spatial differences in environmental exposure and spatial and temporal differences in human exposure. Some of the biota samples were collected at locations with known potential sources of OPs, but most were collected in background locations. Tris-2-chloroisopropyl phosphate (TCPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) dominated in the biota with levels ranging from 170 to 770 ng g(-1) for TCPP in perch and between 21 and 180 ng g(-1) for TPP. In milk samples, TCPP (median 45 ng g(-1)) and tributyl phosphate (median 12 ng g(-1)) were the most frequently occurring OPs. Among samples of fish from background locations, the concentrations and profiles of most OPs were quite similar, indicating that their sources were diffuse. However, in fish from sample locations near known sources, there were marked differences in OP concentrations and profiles. Fish from a stream receiving surface water from Arlanda airport displayed high levels of OPs (10 200 ng g(-1)) that are commonly used in aircraft hydraulic fluids. Fish collected at points 1 or 2 km downstream of sewage treatment plants showed significantly higher levels of tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP), one of the most typically abundant OP in effluents from such plants. In the milk samples obtained from women in different towns no distinct differences were detected in OP concentrations or profiles. However, the levels of TBEP tended to be higher in milk collected 10 years ago than in milk collected more recently. However, human exposure to OPs through eating fish or to breastfeeding babies seems to be of minor importance in relation to other potential sources, such as indoor dust inhalation and ingestion.
PubMed ID
20383376 View in PubMed
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Triaryl/alkyl phosphate residues in human adipose autopsy samples from six Ontario municipalities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature230379
Source
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1989 Aug;43(2):225-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1989
Author
G L LeBel
D T Williams
D. Berard
Author Affiliation
Environmental Health Directorate, Health and Welfare Canada, Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario.
Source
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1989 Aug;43(2):225-30
Date
Aug-1989
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - analysis
Autopsy
Drug Residues - analysis
Female
Flame Retardants - analysis
Humans
Male
Ontario
Organophosphates - analysis
Organophosphorus Compounds - analysis
PubMed ID
2775890 View in PubMed
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7 records – page 1 of 1.